By L. Thorald. Soka University of America.
In dislocation again the deformity is the main feature in inspection which often by itself indicates the diagnosis buy eriacta 100mg on line. As for example in fracture neck of femur the patient lies helpless with the lower limb externally rotated eriacta 100mg amex. In posterior dislocation of the hip the thigh assumes the attitude of flexion cheap eriacta online mastercard, adduction and internal rotation. If there is a wound which communicates with the fracture site, the fracture is said to be compound or open and it runs the risk of being infected. In gas gangrene the muscle may peep out through the wound which will be brick red, green or black in colour, there will be serosanguineous discharge and the characteristic odour. This will reduce beating about the bush, unnecessary discomfort to the patient and will definitely save time. This tenderness should be elicited in relation with the bone and not with the soft tissue. So palpation to elicit tenderness should be made through a healthy soft tissue, otherwise damaged soft tissue will mislead the clinician by its own tenderness. All throughout the length, the bone is palpated through comparatively healthy tissue. In joint injuries a careful examination should be made to elicit the maximum point of tenderness to know which structure is affected. As for example tenderness on the medial side of the medial condyle of the femur means the upper attachment of the tibial collateral ligament of the knee joint has been sprained. Similarly tenderness on the attachment of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus of the knee joint along with other definite signs indicate torn medial semilunar cartilage. Sometime a joint has to be moved in different directions to elicit tenderness by passive stretching of the injured ligament. Utmost gentleness is expected from the clinician while eliciting this physical sign. It should never be sought deliberately since its demonstration adds nothing to the diagnosis and nearly always causes pain. The students should remember the other conditions which may produce crepitus to avoid fallacy. It may be done (a) by rotating the bone in case of humerus or the femur, (b) by squeezing both the bones of the leg or the forearm, which is popularly known as "springing" of the fibula or the radius, (c) by making axial pressure in the line of the bone as can be applied in case of metacarpals or metatarsals. This can be tested by rotating humerus or femur with flexed elbow or knee respectively and by palpating the tubercle of the humerus or the trochanter of the femur with another hand. A bony swelling may be either a displaced fragment of a fracture or the callus or the articulate end of the bone of a dislocated joint. The neighbouring muscles and the subcutaneous tissue of the wound are also palpated to exclude the presence of surgical emphysema which is a sign of gas gangrene. While taking measurement, the sound limb should be kept in the same position as the affected limb. If this simple instruction is not remembered there may be a great difference in measurements in different positions of the limb. The bony points, which are considered in measurement, should be marked with skin pencil before the use of measuring tape. While measuring the circumference of the limb two things should be borne in mind — (a) the healthy limb should be measured first and (b) the measurements should be made at the same level in both the limbs. When the diagnosis is already established this part of the examination should be omitted as this will not give any additional information but will simply hurt the patient. This examination is more essential to exclude any bone or joint injury than anything else. In dislocation of a joint both active and passive movements become nil and an abnormal rigidity with elastic recoil is encountered with any attempt to passive movements. At this stage it will be sufficient to mention that one should exclude any other associated injury which may be accompanied with bone or joint injury. These are injury to the nerve, injury to the blood vessels and injury to the internal organs within the thorax or abdomen which is more dreadful and may be fatal. It is of immense importance to exclude any other injury which may be associated with the bone or joint injury. In this context one must remember that thoracic and abdominal injuries, which tend to be overlooked, are more dangerous. When a pathological fracture is suspected, an attempt should be made to know the cause of the pathological fracture. In infants, multiple fractures may be seen in cases of osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones), which is characterized by dwarfism, broad skull, blue sclera, scoliosis, ligament laxity, otosclerosis (although deafness may not appear until adult life) and various deformities. In adults generalized fibrocystic disease (hyperparathyroidism) and multiple myeloma are the causes of multiple fractures. In case of secondary carcinoma a thorough search should be made to get at the primary focus either in the breast or thyroid or bronchus or kidney or prostate etc. At least two views antero-posterior and lateral should be taken to determine which bone has been fractured, the line of fracture and the type of displacement. The antero-posterior view shows sidewise displacement — external or internal whereas the lateral view reveals anterior or posterior displacement. The three points are mainly noted while reading X-ray plate: (i) Situation — which bone is broken and which part of it? A careful assessment of the line of fracture is very important to know the mechanism of the injury and the treatment to be instituted, (iii) Displacement. There may not be any shift as the fragments may be impacted or overlap each other, (b) Tilt — may be again forwards, backwards and sideways, (c) Twist (rotation) which may be in any direction. Sometimes X-ray picture should be taken from different positions to locate the sites of fracture which are difficult to be revealed in classical antero-posterior and the lateral views. These are oblique view in scaphoid fracture, stereoscopic views in fracture of the skull and pelvis, special axial radiograph in fracture of the calcaneum. In old fractures, one should look for the following points — (i) Signs of union — callus formation which appears in X-ray as early as on the tenth day after fracture. Consolidation and bone remodelling take quite a long time and one should not wait for these signs as the signs of union. In fact union occurs long before these signs develop and clinical test is better evidence of union than the radiological evidence. If there is no local tenderness at the site of fracture and attempt at abnormal movement between the fracture fragments fails to produce any pain or movement, it Figs. Note that there is hardly any evidence of fracture fracture has been united (clinically) though in the lateral view, but the anteroposterior view reveals X-ray shows a small gap between the fracture dislocation with considerable displacement. Note that the lower fragment is shifted upwards, slightly laterally with a variety of and tilted posteriorly. The increased blood flow and increased osteoid tissue formation, which are the processes of tumour-cell invasion, can be demonstrated by locally increased concentration of the gamma- emitting radioisotope. The increased radioactivity is displayed either as a number of counts on a scaler or pictorially as a "hot spot" on a scintiscan. Infrequently, in case of very anaplastic carcinoma, indolent tumours such as thyroid cancer or some cases of myeloma, there may be little or no "hot-spot" seen.
A few special views from different angles may indicate enlargement of a particular chamber of the heart e 100mg eriacta sale. This has been described in details under special investigation of various cardiac conditions later in this chapter order generic eriacta pills. Certain amounts of functions of the cardiac chambers may also be assessed with this investigation purchase 100mg eriacta overnight delivery. Conditions like coarctation of aorta, calcified valves may be detected through this investigation. With this technique important anatomical examination regarding size and shape of the different heart chambers, presence of a shunt or septal defects and function of different valves can be obtained. The aorta and the pulmonary artery and its branches are also visualised in detail. Selective angiocardiography is possible to delineate the anatomy of the coronary arteries in patients with angina. Atherosclerotic plaque in the artery, its correct size and extent and collateral circulation can be well assessed using Neopam 370 with a dose of 4 to 6 ml per selected coronary artery. In the 3rd period catheterisation techniques were modified and extended to allow the angiographer to treat cardiac disease as well as to diagnose it Access to the vena cava and right heart chambers can be attained either percutaneously or by surgical venotomy. Percutaneous right heart cannulation is usually done via the femoral vein, whereas venotomy is performed at the antecubital fossa. Right heart catheterisation can also be done from the internal or external jugular or subclavian veins. Cannulation of the left heart is performed percutaneously from the femoral artery or by surgical cut down on the brachial artery. Occasionally the left heart chambers are approached from the right atrium via the right femoral vein using a technique known as transseptal catheterisation. This procedure involves puncture of the interatrial septum with a special catheter. Most catheters are composed of Woven Dacron or nylon covered with a radio-opaque plastic coating. The normal haemodynamic values are — Right atrium — 0 to 8 mm Hg; Right ventricle — 5 to 30 mm Hg (systolic) and 0 to 8 mm Hg (diastolic). Pulmonary artery — 15 to 30 mm Hg (systolic); 5 to 15 mm Hg (diastolic); Pulmonary artery wedge — 1 to 12 mm Hg. Left ventricle — 90 to 140 mm Hg (systolic); 2 to 12 mm Hg (diastolic); Aorta — 90 to 140 mm Hg (systolic); 60 to 90 mm Hg (diastolic). A contrast cine angiogram of the left ventricle (contrast left ventriculography) is a routine part of most left heart catheterisation studies. It permits an evaluation of ventricular function and chamber size, segmental wall motion, wall thickness and presence and severity of mitral regurgitation. Angiographic assessment of the severity of a regurgitant vulvular lesion is an important step in determining the proper timing for valve replacement surgery. Coronary angiography is another investigation which may be performed by cardiac catheterisation and gives a clear delineation not only of the anatomy of the coronary arteries but also the presence of atherosclerotic plaque, its site and extent. Intracoronary administration of streptokinase is another part of the new and rapidly evolving field of interventional cardiac catheterisation. When these waves cross a boundary or interface, the waves will be reflected back to the transmiting source provided the reflecting surface is at right angles to the original beam. By placing the transmeter, the movements of various walls of the heart including various septa and leaflets of valves can be recorded with useful informations. Thickening, calcification and mobility of the valve cusps can be clearly demonstrated, so that necessary operation can be timed properly. It also indicates presence of any atrial tumour or pericardial effusion with certainty. Recent developments have included investigation of all forms of congenital heart disease by two dimensional and pulsed Doppler echocardiography. This investigation alone can find out various important informations of the diseased heart, so that cardiac catheterisation and angiocardiography can be dispensed with. If radioactive material is coupled with specific antimyocardial monoclonal antibodies, areas of heart damaged during heart attack can be defined. This is also proving useful in investigating cases with myocardial infarction, ventricular aneurysm, intracardiac thrombi and tumours. It also helps both in diagnosis and demonstrating the extent of dissecting aneurysm. The examples arepericardiectomy, resection of thoracic aortic aneurysms, systemic-pulmonary anastomosis, ligation of patient ductus and excision of coarctation of aorta. Mitral valvotomy is probably the only operation which is still performed as a closed intracardiac operation. If the heart is made motionless, blood supply to the various tissues will be stopped. So some alternative arrangement must be made to continue blood supply to the vital organs of the body, so long as the heart is operated on and kept without its function of pumping blood. This type of machine is now widely available in the market in many commercial models. Basically the machine consists of an oxygenator (alternative of lungs) and a pump (alternative of the heart). The circulating blood is diverted from the heart and lungs and is passed through this heart-lung machine, so that the surgeon can operate on the heart while it is not functioning. By this technique, majority of complicated congenital and acquired cardiac abnormalities are operated on. The ascending aorta is cannulated with a plastic tube through a purse-string suture placed in the coat of adventitia. So the deoxygenated blood from the venae cavae are coming to the heart-lung machine, where it is oxygenated and then pumped into the ascending aorta. This is the procedure, with which the heart and lungs of the patient are made inactivated for operation on the heart. Before starting the heart lung machine one must be sure that all air bubbles have been eliminated. After the operation is over, the cannulae are removed, the purse-string sutures are tightened and the heparin is counteracted with protamine (6 mg/kg body weight). A few of these are measurement of blood gases, determination of serum potassium and measuring urinary output. The surgeons prefer a motionless relaxed heart for a considerable period to operate on. This solution also contains an elevated concentrationof potassium to make the heart to stop in diastole.
However purchase 100 mg eriacta otc, the clinical evaluation of a patient with dizziness can be time consuming 100mg eriacta visa, so if no cause is immediately apparent cheap eriacta online mastercard, the author suggests you either reschedule these patients for a full hour of your time or refer them to an otolaryngologist or neurologist. Myopia, astigmatism Now, conducting your history, you will ask if the headache is intermittent (migraine, cluster headache) or constant (sinusitis, meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, tension headache). Is it acute onset (meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, migraine, cluster headache, or acute bacterial sinusitis)? Is there a history of trauma (subdural or epidural hematoma, postconcussion syndrome)? Is it unilateral (migraine, cluster headache, temporal arteritis), bilateral (common migraine, postconcussion syndrome), or occipital and suboccipital (tension headache, meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cervical spondylosis, hypertensive headaches, occipital neuralgia)? For associated symptoms, is there fever (meningitis, sinusitis, infectious disease), is there photophobia, noise sensitivity, or nausea and vomiting (migraine, infectious disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, space-occupying lesion)? Is there an elevated blood pressure (hypertensive headache, subarachnoid hemorrhage)? Are there visual disturbances (migraine, refractive errors, astigmatism, space-occupying lesion)? Are there other neurologic symptoms such as numbness, tingling or weakness of one or more extremities, ataxia, hearing loss, visual loss, facial paralysis, etc. If there is no fever, no history of trauma, and no other neurologic symptomatology, you can quickly move on to the physical examination where you should test visual acuity (glaucoma, refractive error), look for papilledema (space-occupying lesion), check for nuchal rigidity (subarachnoid hemorrhage and viral meningitis), and focal changes in power, reflexes, or sensation on your neurologic examination (space- occupying lesions). If the headache is relieved by superficial temporal artery compression, it is most likely migraine or some other type of vascular headache. On the contrary, if one of the temporal arteries is tender or enlarged, consider the possibility of temporal arteritis. If there is tenderness of an occipital nerve root, consider the possibility of occipital neuralgia, and confirm your suspicion with an occipital nerve block. There will be 30 watering of one eye and possibly a running nose in acute cluster headache. Relief of the headache with a Neo-Synephrine spray confirms the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis in many cases. Finally, be sure to check the blood pressure yourself and in both upper extremities to rule out hypertensive headaches. Regardless of what method you use, have a list of possibilities in mind before you see the patient: 1. Inflammatory bowel disease Now, with this list in mind, in your history, you will consider the patient’s age (over 50—osteoarthritis, 30 to 40—rheumatoid arthritis, etc. You will ask if there has been fever or chills (septic arthritis, rheumatic fever). Is there a history of diabetes mellitus (pseudogout, osteoarthritis) or family history of gout? Has there been a recent urethral discharge (gonococcal arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome)? On your examination, you need to find if the joint is red and hot (septic arthritis, gout, rheumatic fever, and early rheumatoid arthritis) or just swollen and tender (osteoarthritis). If the pain is localized to the knee, check for loose collateral ligaments, McMurray’s test (torn meniscus), Lachman’s maneuver, and a drawer sign (anterior cruciate ligament tear). If the pain is in the hip, palpate for a tender greater trochanter bursa (greater trochanter bursitis) and a positive Patrick’s test (bursitis and arthritis). One of the best ways to determine if the pain is due to bursitis or tendonitis is to inject the area with 1% to 2% lidocaine with or without 20 to 40 mg of triamcinolone acetonide. Do not forget to evaluate for malingering or hysteria when your basic examination is normal. This is suggested when the back pain is produced or aggravated when both the hips and the spine are rotated simultaneously. If there is no history of trauma, then a sprain, fracture, or dislocation can be ruled out. If there is no fever, osteomyelitis and subdiaphragmatic abscess can probably be excluded. Pain radiating to the forearm, hand, and fingers associated with weakness or numbness and tingling would suggest cervical radiculopathy from a herniated disk or cervical spondylosis or space- occupying lesion. Your physical examination should help rule in or rule out most of the other conditions. You can confirm this by palpating the biceps tendon at its origin in the shoulder. Sympathetic dystrophy can be confirmed by mild diffuse atrophy of the upper extremities along with trophic changes in the skin. Many of these conditions can be further verified by relief of pain with an injection of 3 to 5 mL of 1% to 2% lidocaine into the appropriate bursa, tendon, or joint. Is the rectal bleeding associated with pain on defecation (thrombosed hemorrhoids, anal fissure) or is the bleeding painless (carcinoma, internal or external hemorrhoids without thrombosis)? Is the bleeding associated with diarrhea (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, amebic dysentery)? Is the rectal bleeding associated with intestinal obstruction (intussusception, mesenteric thrombosis)? Actually, the clinician could proceed directly to the rectal and anoscopic examination in many of these patients with acute rectal bleeding without diarrhea or evidence of intestinal obstruction. Hemorrhoids will be obvious on inspection and a sentinel pile will help identify an anal fissure that usually occurs at 6 o’clock. Anoscopic and proctoscopic examination will identify rectal carcinomas, internal hemorrhoids, and anal fissures when inspection and palpation are unable to do so. Rectal bleeding with diarrhea, mixed with stool or evidence of intestinal obstruction requires a more extensive workup (page 439) or referral to a proctologist or gastroenterologist. Subacute thyroiditis Thus in your history, you will be asking about fever and chills to cover the various infectious conditions, a rash (measles, infectious mononucleosis, etc. On your physical examination, you will be looking for pharyngeal exudates (strep pharyngitis, infectious mononucleosis, agranulocytosis, diphtheria, etc. It is better to be thorough and consider a list of possible causes before you see the patient and tailor your history and physical examination accordingly. It is easy if you consider the anatomy of the genitourinary tract and work from the bottom up. Systemic causes of polyuria With these conditions in mind, you begin your history by asking if the burning or frequency is acute (urethritis, acute prostatitis, acute cystitis, or pyelonephritis) or chronic and recurrent (chronic cystitis, chronic prostatitis, bladder or renal calculi, bladder neck obstruction, other forms of obstructive uropathy, systemic causes of polyuria). Is there a urethral discharge (gonorrhea, chlamydia, prostatitis) or a vaginal discharge (gonorrhea, chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis)? Has the patient recently had a new sexual partner or been sexually promiscuous (gonorrhea)?