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Most duty officers are quite liberal in referring the individuals to the emergency department generic stromectol 3mg on-line. The Netherlands Generally speaking: Public health officers purchase stromectol canada, who are qualified in clinical forensic medicine generic stromectol 3mg mastercard. Nigeria Any doctor attached to prison services, the police or doctors in the local hospitals, depending on who is available. Serbia If there is an obvious health problem or if they have certain diseases that need medical attention, police will take them to a public healthcare facility or, in the case of emergency, call an ambulance. Spain When a person is under arrest (without having being put under regulation), he asks to be examined by a doctor, he is usually transferred to the Spanish Health Public System doctors. Switzerland The “prison doctor”: either a doctor of internal medicine of university hospital or in rural regions the district physician (acute cases). A forensic doctor of the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Zurich (not urgent cases, “chronic cases”). Question C If a prisoner is suspected of being under the influence of drugs or alcohol in police custody, is it usual for him or her to be examined by a doctor (or other health care professional) to determine whether they are fit to remain in custody? England and Wales Yes, if there are associated health concerns, or if there is a specific need to determine fitness to interview when either intoxication or withdrawal may render an interview invalid. Specific guidelines are published on care of substance misuse detainees in police custody. Germany Yes Hong Kong Yes, they will most certainly be sent to the emergency department. Registered addicts will occasionally be taken to a methadone clinic if they are suffering from withdrawal. The Netherlands Yes Nigeria No Scotland Only when a need is established or the prisoner requests medical assistance. Profound intoxication or suspicion of head injury would be an indication for examination. Serbia Intoxicated detainees may be requested to provide a blood or other appropriate samples for analysis. Samples are arranged outside police premises, usually in the public health institutions. Spain Yes, he or she is often examined and even blood samples are extracted (with his or her previous consent) if the prisoner is involved in some aggression, homicide or car driving, for example. Question D Does your country/state have specific codes/laws/statutes or regulations that make provision for the welfare of individuals in police custody? Response Australia Yes England and Wales Yes Germany Yes Hong Kong There are generic guidelines for all in custody; none specific to the police. India The Protection of Human Rights Act 1993 stipulates detailed provisions regarding this. Scotland Local procedures for each police force based on central guidance, but there is no statute. Serbia No South Africa Yes Spain Yes, there are specific rules in Constitution and in the Penal Code. Switzerland Yes Question E Who undertakes the forensic medical examination and assessment of alleged victims of sexual assault? England and Wales Police surgeons or sexual offense examiners or doctors employed within specialist sexual offenses units. Some forensic physicians, primary care physicians, emergency medicine physicians, and gynecologists undertake such examinations. The Netherlands Generally public health officers, qualified in clinical forensic medicine. Scotland Usually police surgeon, some may be admitted to hospital and be examined by hospital staff. Serbia There is no standard procedure for the examination of alleged victims of sexual assault. There are no protocols for the examination of victims, or for collection of forensic samples. Spain A forensic surgeon (médico forense) and a gynecologist (if the victim is female) or a proctologist (if the victim is male). A specialist in pediatric medicine or surgery always examines children, often, but not always, with a specialist in forensic medicine. Switzerland Physicians of Institute of Legal Medicine of University of Zurich (District Physician); Physicians of University Department of Gynecology, University Hospital Zurich. Question F Who undertakes the forensic medical examination and assessment of alleged perpetrators of sexual assault? India Different centers have different protocols (in this institution, forensic medicine specialists). A bizarre situation, where the victim goes to the gynecology department, whereas the accused in the same case comes to us. The Netherlands Generally speaking, public health officers who are qualified in clinical forensic medicine. Scotland Police surgeon (although experienced police surgeons are not readily available in some sparsely populated areas, and the inexperienced are often reluctant to embark on such an examination). Serbia In practical terms, rarely done although the Criminal Procedure Act allows examination of alleged perpetrators of any crime (including sexual assault) for forensic purposes even without their consent if the examination itself is not considered harmful to them. Switzerland Physicians of Institute of Legal Medicine of University of Zurich (District Physician). Question G In cases of sexual assault is it always possible for victim, perpetrator, or both to be examined by a doctor of the same gender if that is requested? Germany Yes Hong Kong No, there is currently only one full-time female forensic doctor able to do this. This would generally apply only to the victim (female gynecologists examine the victim anyway). Nigeria No Scotland Not always, but every effort is made to comply with an examinee’s wishes. Serbia There is no statutory provision that regulates free choice of either the victim or the perpetrator to be examined by a doctor of preferred (same) gender. Sweden No Switzerland Yes Question H Who undertakes the forensic medical examination and assessment of alleged child victims of sexual assault? Hong Kong Forensic pathologists/physicians, pediatricians, obstetricians, and gynecologists, sometimes jointly. India Female children—gynecologist, preferably female (which is generally the case anyway). The Netherlands Generally speaking, public health officers qualified in clinical forensic medicine. Scotland In the larger centers, joint pediatric/police surgeon examinations are common.
Our feeling is that the problem with early screening is not the screening but what happens after the screening buy stromectol uk. And if the biopsy is positive safe 3mg stromectol, even then a conservative approach should be taken with the majority of men purchase stromectol cheap. In fact, we recommend just the opposite: an aggressive focus on the measures detailed in this chapter, which can help prevent or even reverse the disease. Therapeutic Considerations The therapeutic goal is to reduce as many risk factors as possible while simultaneously implementing dietary and lifestyle factors associated with prostate cancer prevention. Most of the lifestyle factors linked to preventing cancer in general, such as avoiding cigarette smoke or excessive intake of alcohol, also apply to prostate cancer. Diet There is so much convincing evidence on the role of diet in prostate cancer that Dr. William Fair and colleagues from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center went so far as to suggest that prostate cancer may be a nutritional disease. As is also the case in breast cancer, these dietary factors are known to affect sex hormone levels, detoxification mechanisms, and antioxidant status. The results indicated that men with any degree of male-pattern baldness (characterized by gradual hair loss at the front and/or crown of the head) in their mid-twenties were 50% more likely to develop prostate cancer. There are receptors for testosterone on the cells of both hair follicles and the prostate. These ﬁndings mean not that balding men will deﬁnitely get prostate cancer, but only that they are at increased risk, meaning that they would be wise to be more aggressive with dietary and supplementation programs to reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer. In fact, it would be worthwhile to read the chapter “Breast Cancer (Prevention)” to gain an even greater appreciation of how diet can affect hormone-sensitive tissues like the breast and prostate. One of the interesting dietary associations in breast cancer is the high risk that comes with eating well-done or charbroiled meat; frequent consumption of well-done meat, for example, was associated with a nearly 500% increase in breast cancer. Higher consumption of hamburgers, processed meats, grilled meats, and well-done meat was associated with an approximately 50 to 80% increase in aggressive forms of prostate cancer. In a study conducted in Canada, researchers found a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer associated with an increased intake of milk. Interestingly, it was the only dairy product associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer. It is also important to point out that the Mediterranean diet has been shown to help prevent prostate cancer. That would be expected given that it is high in vegetables, legumes, dried and fresh fruits, and ﬁsh; olive oil is its main fat source; it is low in animal fats, processed red meat, milk and dairy products; and it includes regular but low alcohol intake (wine with meals). The high intake of soy may be one of the key protective factors accounting for the low rate of prostate cancer in Japan and China compared with other parts of the world: blood and urine concentrations of soy isoﬂavones (an indicator of intake) were found to be 7 to 10 times higher in Japanese men consuming a traditional Japanese diet compared with Finnish men consuming a typical Western diet. Information on the isoﬂavone content of common soy foods can be found on page 788. Just as in breast cancer again, the beneﬁts of these long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are magniﬁed when the level of animal fat (saturated fat, and arachidonic acid in particular) is also reduced. A high ratio of dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is major risk factor for prostate cancer. Unfortunately, no one has actually looked at the effect of ﬂaxseed oil in prostate cancer. At this time it appears that men in general may be better off avoiding ﬂaxseed oil supplements and focusing on ground ﬂaxseed (for the lignans) and ﬁsh (for the omega-3 fatty acids). Flaxseed Ground ﬂaxseed appears to be quite helpful not only in preventing prostate cancer but also in men with existing prostate cancer. In addition to its phytoestrogenic effect, ﬂaxseed lignans also bind to male hormone receptors and promote the elimination of testosterone. In a study of men with prostate cancer, a low-fat diet (with fat providing 20% or less of total calories) supplemented with 30 g ground ﬂaxseed (roughly 2 tbsp) reduced serum testosterone by 15%, slowed the growth rate of cancer cells, and increased the death rate of cancer cells after only 34 days. Although genetics could play a role, a more likely explanation is dietary differences. In a study conducted by the National Cancer Institute of men who had been newly diagnosed with biopsy-proved prostate cancer and matched controls without prostate cancer, it was shown that increased consumption of foods high in animal fat was linked to prostate cancer (independent of intake of other calories) among black men compared with whites. The higher the intake of animal fat, the greater the risk for advanced prostate cancer. These results indicate that diet plays a major role in why black men have a higher rate of prostate cancer and show that a reduction of fat from animal sources in the diet could lead to decreased incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer, particularly among African- Americans. In one, a total of 29,133 male smokers ages 50 to 69 from southwestern Finland were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (50 mg), beta-carotene (20 mg), both nutrients, or a placebo for 5 to 8 years (median 6. A 32% decrease in the incidence of prostate cancer was observed among the 14,564 subjects receiving vitamin E compared with the 14,569 not receiving it. However, in the 14,560 subjects receiving beta-carotene, prostate cancer incidence was actually 23% higher and mortality was 15% higher compared with the 14,573 not receiving it. Another form of vitamin E, known as gamma-tocopherol, may prove to be more important against prostate cancer than the alpha-tocopherol form, which has been used in virtually all the vitamin E research. Eight different compounds—four tocopherols and four tocotrienols—make up the vitamin E family. They have some functions that are similar and other functions that are completely different. Alpha-tocopherol became synonymous with vitamin E for two main reasons: (1) of the eight, it is the most abundant in the human body, and (2) it is by far the most effective of the eight for what was originally thought of as vitamin E’s main function—to support reproduction. Our blood and tissue contain much more alpha-tocopherol than gamma-tocopherol despite the fact that in the typical American diet we consume twice as much gamma-tocopherol as alpha. The reason is that the liver is able to identify the alpha-tocopherol as it is absorbed from the gut and bind it to a special protein, called the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. It recognizes the alpha- tocopherol and preferentially puts more of it in lipoproteins—proteins that carry fat and cholesterol (e. This compound and other metabolites may act to better protect the prostate from oxidative damage as well as promote apoptosis (programmed cell death), which helps prevent cells from becoming cancerous. In one study, 117 men who developed prostate cancer and 233 matched control subjects had toenail and plasma samples assayed for selenium, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol. For gamma-tocopherol, men with the highest levels had a ﬁvefold reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer compared with men with the lowest levels. The association between selenium and prostate cancer risk was in the protective direction. Statistically signiﬁcant protective associations for high levels of selenium and alpha-tocopherol were observed only when gamma-tocopherol concentrations were high as well. These results indicate that in order to achieve the greatest degree of protection, natural mixed tocopherols that include both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol should be used, rather than only alpha-tocopherol. Natural forms of vitamin E are designated d-, as in d-alpha-tocopherol, while synthetic forms are dl-, as in dl-alpha-tocopherol. The preﬁxes d- and l- refer to two versions of the vitamin E molecule that are, in effect, mirror images of each other, the way your right hand is a mirror image of your left.
Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon stromectol 3mg without a prescription. Validation and clinical utility of a 70-gene prognostic signature for women with node-negative breast cancer stromectol 3mg line. If you abbreviate a word in one reference purchase generic stromectol on-line, abbreviate the same word in all references. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 7. Forthcoming article with author afliation Article Title for Forthcoming Articles (required) General Rules for Article Title • Enter the title of an article or book as it will appear in the fnal document, in the original language • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless some other form of punctuation such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point is already present 692 Citing Medicine • Follow non-English titles with a translation, whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Type of Medium follows it (see below) Specific Rules for Article Title • Article titles not in English • Article titles in more than one language • Translated article titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character Box 14. Cytochrom-P450 mediierte Arzneimittelinteraktionen mit Antibiotika [Cytochrom-P450 mediated drug interactions caused by antibiotics]. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Uso racional del medicamento y efcacia terapeutica [Adequate use of drugs and therapeutic efcacy]. Background information for adopting a policy encouraging earmarked tobacco and alcohol taxes for the creation of health promotion foundations. Indicate all languages of publication afer the journal title, separated by commas. Die Berechnung der prospektiven Zahnposition anhand einer Modellanalyse--das Staub Cranial-System Box 15 continues on next page... Macdonald N, Squires B, Hawkins D, Downie J, Aberman A, Armstrong P, Davidof F, Detsky A, Hall J, Hennen B, Rouleau J, Roy C, Scott J, Stewart D. Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Suzuki T, Hide I, Matsubara A, Hama C, Harada K, Miyano K, Andra M, Matsubayashi H, Sakai N, Kohsaka S, Inoue K, Nakata Y. Forthcoming article title containing Greek letters, superscripts, or subscripts 10. Forthcoming article that is a letter to the editor Article Type for Forthcoming Articles (optional) General Rules for Article Type • An article type alerts the user that the reference is to an abstract or a letter to the editor, not a full article • Place [abstract] or [letter] afer the article title • Follow the bracketed article type with a period Specific Rules for Article Type • Article titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Article titles not in English Box 25. Forthcoming article that is a letter to the editor Forthcoming ("in press") 697 Journal Title for Forthcoming Articles (required) General Rules for Journal Title • Enter a journal title in the original language • Abbreviate signifcant words in a journal title (see Abbreviation rules for journal titles below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations • End the journal title with a period unless an Edition statement or a Type of Medium is included (see below) Box 18. Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention becomes Inj Prev. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics becomes Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod • Some bibliographies and online databases show a place of publication afer a journal title, such as Clin Toxicol (Phila). Tis practice is used to show that two or more journal titles with the same name reside in a library collection or database; the name of the city where the journal is published distinguishes the various titles. Te city is usually shown in abbreviated format following the same rules as for words in journal titles, as Phila for Philadelphia in the example above. If you use a bibliography or database such as PubMed to help construct your reference and a place name is included, you may keep it if you wish. Abbreviate it according to the Abbreviation rules for journal titles and capitalize all remaining words, including abbreviations. Abbreviate it according to the Abbreviation rules for journal titles and capitalize all remaining words, including abbreviations. Do not abbreviate any of the words or omit any words; use the capitalization system of the particular language. If you do, abbreviate the title according to the Abbreviation rules for journal titles and indicate the language of the article afer the journal title. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Forthcoming article in a journal title with an edition Forthcoming ("in press") 701 13. Forthcoming article in an Internet journal Edition for Forthcoming Articles (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the title if a journal is published in more than one edition or version • Abbreviate each signifcant word (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) and omit other words, such as articles, conjunctions, and prepositions • Capitalize all remaining title words, including abbreviations • Place the edition statement in parentheses, such as (Br Ed) • End the edition statement with a period placed outside the parenthesis unless the Type of Medium is included (see below) Box 23. See Appendix A for a list of commonly abbreviated English words in journal titles. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Example: ĉ or ç becomes c ⚬ Separate the edition from the title proper by a space and place it in parentheses ⚬ Do not follow abbreviated words with a period, but end all journal title information with a period Example: Pharmakeutikon Deltion. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ŏ becomes o ū becomes u ⚬ Separate the edition from the title proper by a space and place it in parentheses ⚬ End all the title information with a period Example: Fang She Hsueh Shi Jian. If you do, abbreviate them according to the Abbreviation rules for journal titles. Dutch uitgave Uitg editie Ed Finnish julkaisu Julk French edition Ed German Ausgabe Ausg Greek ekdosis Ekd Box 24 continues on next page... Language Word Abbreviation Italian edizione Ed Norwegian publikasjon Publ Portuguese edicao Ed Russian izdanieIzd Spanish edicion Ed Swedish upplaga n. Forthcoming article in an Internet journal Volume Number for Forthcoming Articles (optional) General Rules for Volume Number • Omit "volume", "vol. Specific Rules for Volume Number • Supplements, parts, special numbers to a volume • Non-English names for volume • No volume number present Box 28. A volume will sometimes be published with a further subdivision instead of an issue. See the following examples: Language Suppl Spec No Pt French supplement nombre speciale partie annexe part German Beiblatt spezielle Zahl Teil Beilage Box 28 continues on next page... Occasionally a journal will publish a series of issues without volumes or will publish a supplement, part, or special number to a date of publication rather than to a volume or issue. Forthcoming article with volume and issue predicted Issue Number for Forthcoming Articles (optional) General Rules for Issue Number • Omit "number", "no. An issue will sometimes be published with a further subdivision, usually called a supplement, part, or special number. Part = Pt Special Number = Spec No • Place them afer the issue number and inside the parentheses. Forthcoming article with volume and issue predicted Language for Forthcoming Articles (required) General Rules for Language • Give the language of publication if not English • Capitalize the language name • Follow the language name with a period Forthcoming ("in press") 711 Specific Rules for Language • Articles appearing in more than one language Box 35.
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