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By A. Rufus. University of Maine at Farmington.

M alone-L ee Yes Yes N otclear Attritionreportedclearly generic cialis soft 20 mg without prescription,crossovers N o 2000 N otreported order cialis soft 20mg overnight delivery,adherencem easuredbut N otreported purchase line cialis soft. D rutz Yes O nly foradverseevents N otclear Attritionreportedclearly ,othersN ot 47% of originalpatients 1999 reported ex cludedfrom analy sis,20% withdrew overall,with 12% of originalgroup withdrawing due toadverseevents. Abram s Yes Yes N otclear W ithdrawalsduetoadverseeffects N o 1998 reportedclearly O thersN otreported M ilani Yes N o N otclear Yes 18% drop outrate,higherin 1993 O x y group duetoadverse effects O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 118 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) Im m ediate R elease vs Im m ediate R elease L eung F air 2002 L ee F air(+) 2002 M alone-L ee F air 2000 D rutz Poor 1999 Abram s F air 1998 M ilani Poor 1993 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 119 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded Zeegers N otreported N otreported N otclear Yes Yes Yes 1987 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 120 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up Zeegers Yes N o N otclear W ithdrawalsduetoadverseeffects Yes,high losstofollow-up in 1987 reportedclearly E m p group O thersN otreported O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 121 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) Zeegers Poor 1987 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 122 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded Halaska 2003 3:1Trospium :O x y N otreported Sim ilardem ographics. O x y group hadsom ewhat Yes Yes Yes M ethodology notreported increasedfrequency of incontinence, m icturitions/day andurgency episodes/day M adersbacher N otreported N otreported Som edifferencesingenderandbaseline Yes Yes N otreported 1995 urody nam ic m easures O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 123 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up Halaska 2003 Yes Yes N otclear W ithdrawalsduetoadverseeffects, Yes,withdrawalrate25% poorefficacy ,poorcom pliance overall,sim ilarinboth arm s reported. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) Halaska 2003 F air M adersbacher F air 1995 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 125 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded Im m ediate R elease vs Extended R elease VanK errebroeck Adequate N otreported Yes Yes Yes Yes 2001 Appell Adequate N otreported Yes,stratifiedrandom iz ationbasedonthe Yes Yes Yes 2001 severity of urgeincontinence Birns Yes,Blockrandom iz ation N otreported Patientdem ographicsN otgivenotherthan Yes Yes Yes 2000 2pts/blockHospitals m eanage:56y o 5pts/blockO P Clinic Versi N otreported Adequate- Statednosignificantdifferences,butnotenough Yes Yes Yes 2000 central datapresentedtoassess random iz ation by phone N illsson N on-random iz ed N otreported N otreported Yes N otreported N otreported(stated 1997 (statedE R group E R group took tookplaceboin placeboinevening) evening) Anderson N otreported N otreported Som edifferences,m eannum berurge Yes Yes Yes 1999 incontinenceepisodes/wkhigherinE R group (N S). Hom m a Yes N R Yes Yes N R y es 2003 Swift Yes N R Yes Yes N R Yes 2003 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 126 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up Im m ediate R elease vs Extended R elease VanK errebroeck Yes Yes N otclear Yes 12% overalllosstof/u 2001 95% com pliance 6% lostduetoadverseevents: E R 5%,IR 5^,Placebo6% Appell Yes repeatedm easures N otclear Yes O verall= 12% 2001 analy sisdone,butonly p- 14% O x y E R ,11% Tol valuesreported Birns Yes N o N otclear Yes 1. Actualnum bers N otclear Attritiony es,crossoversnone, N onAD E withdrawalssim ilar 2003 analy z edN R. O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 127 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) Im m ediate R elease vs Extended R elease VanK errebroeck F air 2001 Appell F air 2001 Birns F air 2000 Versi F air 2000 N illsson Poor 1997 Anderson F air 1999 Hom m a F air 2003 Swift F air 2003 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 128 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded R adom ski 2004 Crossover N o O penlabel Crossover. IR O x y alway sprovidedfirstandonly Yes N o N o random iz ation 2weeks. E R provided4weeks O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 129 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up R adom ski 2004 N o N oforefficacy ,y esfor N otclear. Threewithdrawalsincluded Yes 3of 12withdrew duetoadverse adverseevents insafety analy sis. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) R adom ski 2004 Poor O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 131 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded Barkin,2004 N R N R sim ilar y es y es,m ethodN R y es,m ethodN R Chappleetal, y es N R sim ilar y es N R N R 2005 Chapple& y es N R sim ilar y es N R N R Abram s,2005 Chapple, N R N R som edifferences,priordrug therapy :placebo y es N R N R R echbergeretal, 32%,Sol5m g 34. Zinner,2005 Yes Yes Yes(statedbutnodetailsreported) Yes Yes Yes O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 132 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up Barkin,2004 y es,m ethod no notclear withdrawalsreportedclearly ,crossover no N R notreported,Com pliancereportedin withdrawalreasons:2patientsinO x y group,contam inationN R Chappleetal, y es y es notclear withdrawalsreportedclearly ,crossover N R 2005 notreported,Com pliancenotreported, contam inationN R Chapple& y es no notclear withdrawalsreportedclearly ,crossover no Abram s,2005 reportedclearly ,Com pliancedescribed butnotreported,contam inationN R Chapple, N R y es notclear withdrawalsreportedclearly ,otherN R no R echbergeretal, 2003 Zinner,2005 Yes N R Yes W ithdrawalsreported,crossoveras N o planned,com plianceN R , contam inationN R O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 133 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) Barkin,2004 fair Chappleetal, fair 2005 Chapple& fair Abram s,2005 Chapple, fair R echbergeretal, 2003 Zinner,2005 F air O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 134 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded Extended R elease vs Extended R elease Sussm an N otreported N otreported N o,som edifferences: Yes Tolarm sstatedto Tolarm sstatedto 2002 R andom iz ationwaswithin Tol4m g group hadm oreCaucasians beopenlabel. O x y drug group -centerswere O x y 10m g group hadm orepatientswith prior arm sN otclearif arm sN otclearif assignedtoTolorO x y drug ex perience,andm orem en blinded. D iokno N R N R Yes Yes Yes Yes 2003 O PE R A Arm stong,2005 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Transderm alvs. Im m ediate R elease D avila Yes N R Yes,ex ceptm ostm ales(5/6)inO x y TD group Yes N R N R 2001 Transderm alvs. Extended R elease O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 135 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up Extended R elease vs Extended R elease Sussm an Tolarm s StatedtobeITT,tobe N otclear W ithdrawalsduetoadverseeffects U nabletocalculateforTol2m g 2002 statedtobe includedpatientshadto reportedclearly forTol4m g and andO x y 5m g. M issing data O thersN otreported wereim putedby last observationcarriedforward m ethod. D iokno Yes Yes(using last U nclear Attritiony es Slightly m orelossinO x y group, 2003 observationcarried AdherenceN R including onedeath. Im m ediate R elease D avila Yes N o,butonly 1drop out N R no 2001 from each group Transderm alvs. Extended R elease O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 136 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) Extended R elease vs Extended R elease Sussm an F air(-) 2002 D iokno F air 2003 O PE R A Arm stong,2005 F air Transderm alvs. Im m ediate R elease D avila F air 2001 Transderm alvs. Extended R elease O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 137 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Eligibility O utcom e A uth or, A llocation criteria assessors C are provider Y ear R andom assignm ent concealed G roups sim ilaratbaseline specified blinded blinded D m ochowski N R N R Yes,though m orem aleandblackpatientsinox y Yes N R Yes 2003 TD group O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 138 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Patient Differentialloss to follow-up A uth or, unaware of Intention-to-treat(ITT) R eporting ofattrition,crossovers, oroverallh igh loss to follow- Y ear treatm ent analysis M aintenance ofcom parable groups adh erence,and contam ination up D m ochowski Yes Yes U nclear Attritionoverall41/361(11%) U nclear,notallwithdrawals 2003 Adherence92% accountedfor O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 139 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 2. Internalvalidity Score A uth or, (good/ Y ear fair/poor) D m ochowski F air 2003 O xy=O xybutynin,Tol= Tolterodine,F la= F lavoxate,Emp= Emperonium,IR = ImmediateR elease,ER = ExtendedR elease,U TI= U rinaryTractInfection Overactive bladder 140 of 217 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Evidence Table 3. A ntich olinergicoveractive bladdersyndrom e drugs com pared with oth erdrugs N um berscreened/A ge A uth or, Study Design eligible/ G ender Y ear Setting enrolled Eth nicity Interventions (drug,regim en,duration) F lavoxate G runeberger R CT 39enrolled,others M eanage:F la48,Cle53 F la200m g or 1984 SingleCenter notreported 100% fem ale Clenbuterol(Cle)0. A ntich olinergicoveractive bladdersyndrom e drugs com pared with oth erdrugs A uth or, O th erpopulationch aracteristics Y ear (diagnosis,etc) F lavoxate G runeberger N eurogenic cause:F la9(47%),Cle14(70%) 1984 M ix edincontinence:F la3(16%),Cle3(15%) M ey hoff Com orbidstressincontinence:10/20(50%);O neorm orepreviousoperations: 1983 5/20(25%);detrusorinstability :14/20(70%);unabletosuppressvoluntarily induced detrusorcontraction:5/20(25%) Bradley U rinary TractInfection:F la6(25%),Pro5(23%);Sy m ptom sonly :F la4(17%),Pro 1970 2(9%);Cy stitisaloneorm ix ed:F la10(42%),Pro12(54. A ntich olinergicoveractive bladdersyndrom e drugs com pared with oth erdrugs A uth or, Y ear Eligibility criteria Exclusioncriteria F lavoxate G runeberger N otR eported N otR eported 1984 M ey hoff R apidfillCO 2cy stom etry revealing detrusorinstability asdefined Patientswith detrusorsphincterdy ssy nergia;bladderstoneorbladder 1983 according todefinitionsof theInternationalContinenceSociety or tum or;neurologicaldisease;glaucom aorsevereheartfailure;concom itant wasconsideredpresentif thepatientdidnothaveuninhibited useof drugsaffecting theautonom ic nervoussy stem orsm ooth m uscles detrusorcontractionsduring filling cy stom etry butwasunableto suppressavoluntarily induceddetrusorcontractionwithin50sec. A ntich olinergicoveractive bladdersyndrom e drugs com pared with oth erdrugs A uth or, Y ear O utcom es F lavoxate G runeberger Patientsassessm ent: 1984 Cured/Im proved:F la11(58%),Cle15(75%) M ey hoff M icturations/24h: 1983 F la+1,E m e-0. A ntich olinergicoveractive bladdersyndrom e drugs com pared with oth erdrugs A uth or, A dverse effects assessed? Y ear H ow assessed W ith drawals due to adverse events F lavoxate G runeberger N otclear. F la:9reportsof gastric sideeffects,Cle:4hadtrem bling and 4withdrew duetogastric com plaints,1dueto 1984 tachy cardia,3hadnervousness severeneurosis,Cle:1withdrew duetodrug interaction M ey hoff Assessm entunclear. N otR eported 1983 Totaladverseeventsreported:F la34,E m e26,Pl16 D ry m outh:E m e8,F la5,Pl5; Visualdisturbances:E m e2,F la3,Pl1; N ausea/heartburn:E m e7,F la7,Pl2; Vom iting:E m e1,F la0,Pl0; Constipation:E m e3,F la0,Pl0; D iz z iness:E m e4,F la1,Pl1; Headache:E m e4,F la0,Pl0; Incom pletebladderE m pty ing:E m e2,F la1,Pl1; D iarrhea:E m e2,F la3,Pl1; D epression:E m e0,F la1,Pl2; E dem a:E m e0,F la1,Pl1; E x anthem a:E m e0,F la1,Pl0; O thers:E m e1,F la3,Pl2 Bradley N otclear. F la:D ry m outh 1;Abdom inalpain1;Headache1 F la:2withdrew;butnotclearduetowhich 1970 Pro:D iz z iness1;Constipation1 adverseevents Cle:1withdrew duetodiz z iness Herbst N otclear.

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Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: results from the study by the autism network of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network.

Perennial allergic Fair for comparison of cetirizine to One fair-quality study suggested rhinitis (PAR) loratadine in children ages 2 to 6 cetirizine may be more efficacious than years proven cialis soft 20 mg. Fair for comparison of cetirizine to Cetirizine was superior to levocetirizine levocetirizine in children ages 6 to 12 for symptoms in 1 fair-quality study purchase cheapest cialis soft and cialis soft, but years order cialis soft online now. Insufficient evidence on the comparative effectiveness of other drug combinations. Urticaria Poor for comparative effectiveness No head-to-head studies. Harms For outpatients with Seasonal allergic rhinitis, Perennial allergic rhinitis or urticaria, do newer antihistamines differ in safety or adverse effects? Overall adverse Fair Rates of discontinuation due to adverse events events was low with included newer antihistamines. Sedation Fair First-generation antihistamines (diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine) more sedating than newer-generation agents. Cetirizine and levocetirizine were more sedating than loratadine and desloratadine. Some evidence suggested that cetirizine may be more sedating than fexofenadine. There was no significant difference in reports of sedation between loratadine and fexofenadine in 1 observational study. Headache Fair Headache was reported with similar rates in cetirizine, loratadine, and fexofenadine. Cardiac effects Fair A large, fair-quality cohort study provided evidence of a significant risk of cardiac arrhythmias with cetirizine compared with non-use. A nonsignificant increase in risk was noted with loratadine. Limited evidence suggested no QTc prolongation with loratadine and fexofenadine. Bitter taste/nasal Fair Incidence was higher with azelastine than discomfort olopatadine in head-to-head trials but indirect assessment suggested minimal difference between groups. Children No head-to-head data on adverse Insufficient evidence on comparative events except 2 events in cetirizine safety. Fair-quality evidence on the safety of cetirizine and loratadine. Limited evidence on the safety of desloratadine and fexofenadine. Fair evidence that cetirizine does not significantly prolong QTc interval. Limited evidence (1 study each) that desloratadine and fexofenadine did not prolong QTc interval. Subgroups Are there subgroups of patients based on demographics (age, racial groups, gender), concomitant medications (drug-drug interactions), co-morbidities (drug-disease interactions or pregnancy), for which one newer antihistamine is more effective or associated with fewer adverse effects? Age, gender, There was insufficient evidence to We did not identify head-to-head race/ethnicity determine whether any of the comparative studies of drug interactions. Asthma or atopic Fair There were no differences in rate of dermatitis adverse events in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma or atopic dermatitis. Pregnancy Fair There was minimal increase risk of birth defects observed with newer antihistamines in pregnant women. Newer antihistamine drug exposure in pregnant women did not significantly increase the risk of hypospadias in male infants. Abbreviations: AR, allergic rhinitis; CIU, chronic idiopathic urticaria; ECG, electrocardiogram; NS, not significant; NSD, no significant difference; PAR, perennial allergic rhinitis; QT, cardiac output; QTc, corrected QT interval for heart rate; RCT, randomized controlled trial; SAR, seasonal allergic rhinitis; SD, significant difference; TSS, total symptom score. Antihistamines Page 35 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project REFERENCES 1. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Second-generation antihistamines: actions and efficacy in the management of allergic disorders. Safety and tolerability of treatments for allergic rhinitis in children. Therapeutic advantages of third generation antihistamines Expert Opin Inv Drug. Allergic rhinitis and impairment issues in schoolchildren: A consensus report. Current concepts and therapeutic strategies for allergic rhinitis in school-age children. Consensus statement on the treatment of allergic rhinitis. European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N, ARIA Workshop Group, World Health Organization. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. Allergic rhinitis: epidemiology and natural history. Allergic rhinitis: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, detection, and diagnosis. Malone DC, Lawson KA, Smith DH, Arrighi HM, Battista C. A cost of illness study of allergic rhinitis in the United States. Management of allergic rhinitis in the working-age population. Washington, DC: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); March 2003. Allergic rhinitis: basic pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies. Clinical prescribing of allergic rhinitis medication in the preschool and young school-age child: what are the options? Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Halonen M, Morgan W, Taussig LM. Epidemiology of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in childhood. Improvement of quality of life by treatment with cetirizine in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis as determined by a French Antihistamines Page 36 of 72 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project version of the SF-36 questionnaire. Quality of life in adults and children with allergic rhinitis.

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