By U. Stejnar. Pennsylvania State University at Altoona. 2019.
Kim YD generic clomiphene 100 mg on line, Zhuang HY order clomiphene with amex, Tsutsumi M order cheap clomiphene on-line, Okabe A, Kurachi M, Kamikawa Y. Comparison of the effect of zopiclone and brotizolam on sleep EEG by quantitative evaluation 4 in healthy young women. Insomnia Page 73 of 86 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Trials Code Kintz P, Villain M, Concheiro M, Cirimele V. Screening and confirmatory method for benzodiazepines and hypnotics in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS. Kitajima T, Tomita S, Hayakawa T, Kayukawa Y, Ohta T. Successful treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome with melatonin. Sixth World Congress of 3 Biological Psychiatry, Nice, France. Kratzsch C, Tenberken O, Peters FT, Weber AA, Kraemer T, Maurer HH. Screening, library-assisted identification and validated quantification of 23 benzodiazepines, flumazenil, zaleplone, zolpidem and zopiclone in plasma by 2 liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. High-dose zolpidem dependence in a patient 4 with chronic facial pain. Kryger MH, Steljes D, Pouliot Z, Neufeld H, Odynski T. Subjective versus objective evaluation of hypnotic efficacy: Experience with zolpidem. Clinical efficacy and safety of zolpidem on insomnia: a double-blind comparative study with zolpidem and nitrazepam. Kuitunen T, Mattila MJ, Seppala T, Aranko K, Mattila ME. Actions of zopiclone and carbamazepine, alone and in combination, on human skilled performance in 4 laboratory and clinical tests. Drug and ethanol effects on the clinical test for drunkenness: single doses of ethanol, hypnotic drugs and antidepressant drugs. On the sleep promoting effects of BR-16A: interaction with GABAergic modulators. Long-term polysomnographic study of the efficacy and safety of zolpidem in elderly psychiatric in-patients with insomnia. A double-blind study to establish the residual effects of zopiclone on performance in healthy volunteers. Subjective effects during administration and on discontinuation of zopiclone and temazepam in normal subjects. Lamphere JK, Roehrs TA, Zorick FJ, Koshorek G, Roth T. Landolt HP, Finelli LA, Roth C, Buck A, Achermann P, Borbely AA. Zolpidem and sleep deprivation: Different effect on EEG power spectra. Journal of the American 4 Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Differential effects of zolpidem (Zp) (10mg), zopiclone (Zc) (7. Insomnia Page 74 of 86 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Trials Code Lebrault C, Chauvin M, Guirimand F, Gauneau P, Duvaldestin P. Randomized double blind comparison of zoldipem and lorazepam versus placebo in 4 premedication. Health-related quality of life in patients with 5 insomnia treated with zopiclone. Study of vigilance after ingestion of zopiclone in comparison with nitrazepam and placebo: Methodology: Self-rating 4 questionnaire and psychometric tests. Zolpidem intoxication mimicking narcotic overdose: Response to flumazenil. A comparative study of imovane and estazolam treatment on sleep 3 disturbances. A single open-centre study to investigate the efficacy of a new cyclopyrrolone hypnotic, zopiclone. Double-blind study, randomized, comparative between zopiclone and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) in chronic 6 insomniac patients. Lorizio A, Terzano MG, Parrino L, Cesana BM, Priore P. Zolpidem: A double-blind comparison of the hypnotic activity and safety of a 10-mg versus 20-mg dose. Lucchesi LM, Braga NI, Manzano GM, Pompeia S, Tufik S. Acute neurophysiological effects of the hypnotic zolpidem in healthy volunteers. Progress 4 in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. A postmarketing surveillance study of zopiclone in insomnia. Maillard D, Thiercelin JF, Fuseau E, Rosenzweig P, Attali P. Effects of zolpidem versus diazepam and placebo on breathing control parameters in healthy human 4 subjects. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research. Amisulpride does not prevent relapse in primary alcohol dependence: Results of a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Caffeine moderately antagonizes the effects of triazolam and zopiclone on the psychomotor performance of healthy subjects. Effects of psychotropic drugs on digit substitution: Comparison of the computerized symbol-digit substitution and 2 traditional digit- symbol substitution tests. Effects of alcohol and hypnosedative drugs on digit-symbol substitution: comparison of two different computerized tests. Zolpidem 10 mg given at daytime is not antagonized by 300 mg caffeine in man.
No statistical comparisons were presented for these outcomes cheap 50mg clomiphene mastercard. Two randomized controlled trials compared racemic albuterol to levalbuterol purchase clomiphene 100mg online. Nowak and 102 colleagues enrolled 627 adults with acute asthma exacerbations presenting to the emergency department or to acute care clinics order 100mg clomiphene with mastercard. Approximately two-thirds of these patients were African American. At the time of emergency department/clinic discharge, patients were given a 5-day course of oral corticosteroids and a blinded, nebulized study drug to be given 3 times a day for 3 days, then as needed for up to 3 times a day for 7 days. The time to meet emergency department or clinic discharge criteria (the primary outcome) did not differ between the 2 treatments: 76. Hospitalization rates were similar between groups (levalbuterol 7. Relapse rates at 7 and 30 days were also similar between groups (P>0. In the subgroup of subjects not on steroids at the time of the emergency department visit, fewer levalbuterol- than albuterol-treated patients required hospitalization (3. However, there was no significant difference in admission rates for the subgroup taking steroids at baseline. The focus of the study was the safety of long-term, regular use of levalbuterol metered dose inhaler. Pirbuterol metered dose inhaler was used as rescue medication. The study was originally designed for 12 Quick-relief medications for asthma Page 17 of 113 Final Report Update 1 Drug Effectiveness Review Project months of follow-up, but was modified to 6 months, with no rationale for this change provided. Attrition rates were high overall (44%) at 6-month follow-up; rates were even higher at 12 months (65% with levalbuterol and 57% with albuterol). Because of the high attrition and the change in follow-up period without provision of a rationale, this study was rated poor quality. Rates of asthma adverse events and asthma attacks (the latter defined as requiring hospitalization, a visit to the emergency department or clinic, or a burst of corticosteroids) were similar between groups. Rates of rescue medication use and daytime asthma control days were similar between groups (no statistics reported). Quality of life (as measured with the Adult Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) improved to a similar extent in both groups. Pediatric patients did, however, demonstrate a greater improvement in quality of life (as measured with the pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) with levalbuterol than with albuterol. No statistics were provided for the pediatric measures and the sample size was small (N=31). Pediatric asthma Symptoms and use of rescue medication did not differ between drugs in the 5 pediatric studies 51, 53, 57, 59, 61 that compared albuterol and levalbuterol. Two of these studies took place in the 57 emergency department. Qureshi and colleagues examined children aged 2 to 14 years (N=129) upon presentation to a pediatric emergency department with a moderate to severe acute asthma exacerbation (asthma score >8 out of a possible score of 15 or FEV1). These children were given 3 nebulized treatments of either albuterol 2. There were no significant differences between groups after the first, third, and fifth nebulizer treatments for the primary outcome of improvement in asthma score (validated score based on respiratory rate, auscultation, retractions, dyspnea, and oxygen requirement) or percentage of predicted FEV. Three treatments were given as needed at 20-minute intervals, along with oral steroids after the second treatment. There were no differences among groups for oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, peak flow rates, or the need for extra treatments. Three studies examined regular daily use of levalbuterol and albuterol. Milgrom and 53 colleagues examined 338 children aged 4 to 11 years with at least mild asthma for 60 days before screening and randomized them to receive 21 days of three-times-a-day levalbuterol 0. No significant differences were noted among the treatment groups for overall asthma symptom score, number of symptom-free days, quality of life, or use of rescue medication. Asthma control days were not different among groups for the first 14 days of treatment; however, from day 14 to 21, levalbuterol 0. Symptom score improved in all groups over the 3 weeks, with no significant difference among groups. There were also no differences among groups for use of rescue medications, the number of uncontrolled asthma days, functional status score, or Child Health Status Questionnaire responses. The Pediatric Asthma Caregivers Quality of Life Questionnaire improved more for the levalbuterol groups, although between-group differences were not significant. In a subgroup analysis of patients less than 33 pounds, overall Questionnaire score was significantly improved after levalbuterol 0. This study was of fair quality: Although it reported using intention-to-treat analyses for efficacy and effectiveness measures, the number of subjects actually analyzed was unclear. The use of rescue medications (days/week) decreased with both active treatments (levalbuterol compared with placebo, P<0. These trials all took place in the emergency department and were similarly designed randomized controlled trials, with blinding of the patient and treating physician. Ten patients were excluded from analysis, including 6 due to protocol violation. The authors noted no differences in the secondary outcomes of percent of patients hospitalized from the emergency department, length of care in the emergency department, median number of nebulizations, or rate of adverse events. In the levalbuterol group 11% of patients were hospitalized; in the albuterol group the rate was 13%. The authors indicate that their study was underpowered to detect a possible difference in rates between groups. In contrast to the 2 studies just discussed, a significant decrease in hospital admission rate was noted with the use of levalbuterol in the emergency department in a study by Carl and 46 associates. This study (N=547) of predominantly African American boys with moderate to severe chronic asthma randomized children aged 1 to 18 years upon presentation to the emergency department. Patients received nebulized treatment at 20-minute intervals of 1. The average hospital admission rate for the last 5 years was 42% for this study setting, and this study was powered to examine hospital admission rates as a primary outcome. The use of albuterol in the 24 hours prior to the emergency department visit correlated with hospital admissions (P=0. After controlling for age, treatment with >3 aerosols in the last 12 hours and oral corticosteroid use in the previous 24 hours, investigators found that levalbuterol was still associated with a lower admission rate, 43% compared with 53% for albuterol (relative risk 1. Exercise-induced asthma No studies compared albuterol with levalbuterol in persons with exercise-induced asthma. Levalbuterol compared with albuterol plus ipratropium bromide Adult asthma No studies reported this combination of drugs. Pediatric asthma 88 Ralston and colleagues compared levalbuterol to the combination of racemic albuterol plus ipratropium bromide in 140 children age 6 to 18 years seen in the emergency department with acute asthma in a fair-quality study.
Blood (ASH imatinib in Japanese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia purchase 25 mg clomiphene overnight delivery. Early molecular dasatinib or nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) response and female sex strongly predict stable undetectable patients (pts) with stable undetectable Bcr-Abl transcripts: BCR-ABL1 purchase discount clomiphene online, the criteria for imatinib discontinuation in patients results from the French CML group (FILMC) [abstract] cheap 50mg clomiphene mastercard. Early molecular response and cytogenetic response is predictive for long-term progression- and female sex strongly predict achievement of stable undetect- free and overall survival in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). ABL1 transcript levels at 3 months is the only requirement for 30. Discontinuation of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine predicting outcome for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia kinase inhibitor in CML patients with undetectable molecular treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Nilotinib versus 17th Congress of the European Hematology Association (Meet- imatinib in patients (pts) with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid ing Abstracts). Fluctuating values of chronic phase, Philadelphia chromosome-positive, chronic my- molecular residual disease (MRD) without molecular progres- eloid leukaemia: 24-month minimum follow-up of the phase 3 sion after imatinib discontinuation in patients (pts) with chronic randomised ENESTnd trial. Nilotinib versus role of prior interferon therapy–a pilot study of the French CML imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia. Guastaﬁerro S, Falcone U, Celentano M, Coppola M, Ferrara in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who have main- MG, Sica A. Is it possible to discontinue imatinib mesylate tained complete molecular response: updated results of the therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia patients with undetectable STIM study [abstract]. Previous best responses can late deaths after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. N Engl be re-achieved by resumption after imatinib discontinuation in J Med. Childs1 and Maria Berg1 1Section of Transplantation Immunotherapy, Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Recently, there has been a substantial gain in our understanding of the role that natural killer (NK) cells play in mediating innate host immune responses against viruses and cancer. Although NK cells have long been known to be capable of killing cancer cells independently of antigen recognition, the full therapeutic potential of NK cell–based immunotherapy has yet to be realized. Here we review novel methods to activate and expand human NK cells ex vivo for adoptive transfer in humans, focusing on the important phenotypic and functional differences observed among freshly isolated, cytokine activated, and ex vivo–expanded NK populations. Natural killer cell therapy for cancer: a new hope research investigating a variety of novel methods to bolster immu- nity against cancer through the use of adoptive NK cell infusions. Although NK cells inability to reliably expand large numbers of NK cells ex vivo have long been known to be capable of killing cancer cells precluded investigators from pursuing phase 1 trials evaluating for independently of antigen recognition, the full therapeutic potential an NK cell dose-response relationship. At present, it is not at all clear what threshold of NK cell numbers is needed to achieve an of NK cell–based immunotherapy has yet to be realized. Here we antitumor effect after adoptive NK cell transfer. Short- and long- review novel methods to activate and expand human NK cells term cell cultures containing cytokines without feeder cells, such as ex vivo for adoptive transfer in humans, focusing on the important IL-15 and IL-2, given alone or in combination with other growth phenotypic and functional differences observed among freshly factors, typically result in relatively small ex vivo NK cell expan- isolated, cytokine activated, and ex vivo–expanded NK populations. Although some investigators have observed differences in their growth rate, in our experience, NK cells obtained from cancer Ex vivo NK cell activation and expansion patients proliferate ex vivo similarly to those obtained from healthy donors. NK cells are deﬁned by their CD3 /CD56 pheno- therapy remain in a proof-of-concept phase, with allogeneic infu- type, comprising 5% to 15% of circulating lymphocytes, and are sions often being given after immunosuppressive chemotherapy or commonly divided into CD56dimCD16 (90%) and CD56brightCD16 after an HLA-mismatched transplantation, most investigators have (10%) subpopulations with distinct effector functions. Recently, pursued methods to expand highly puriﬁed NK cells so that both the investigators have shown that NK cell tumor cytotoxicity can be efﬁcacy and any toxicities of the infused product can be directly attributable to NK cells themselves. Recently, anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibod- Ex vivo cytokine-activated NK cells ies and the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide were shown to Although culturing NK cells in cytokine-containing medium alone enhance both NK cell tumor trafﬁcking and NK cell–mediated is less effective in expanding NK cells compared with cultures antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and cytokine re- containing feeder cells, such culture conditions are capable of lease against tumors while simultaneously suppressing regulatory activating NK cells quickly, even after a short overnight incubation, T cell function. Miller et al used a strategy of CD3 depletion of mononu- mediated cytotoxicity and TNF release against melanoma cells by clear cells (using the Miltenyi CliniMACS system) collected by Fc RIII (CD16) binding to antibody-bound tumor cells, as well as apheresis from haploidentical donors, followed by a brief 8- to through regulatory T cell inactivation. Further, recent advances in patients with relapsed hematological malignancies and solid in our ability to expand NK cells ex vivo have fueled translational tumors including breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Methods to activate and/or ex vivo expand human NK cells for infusion in patients with cancer. The addition of a CD56 selection after products before they could be used in the allogeneic setting. To medium containing nicotinamide (NAM), a speciﬁc inhibitor of avoid this complication, the University of Minnesota, which has the 38 NAD( )-dependent enzymes. In MEM medium supplemented most experience with the use of IL-2–activated NK cells, now incorporates both CD3 T-cell and CD19 B-cell depletion on with IL-2, IL-15, and NAM (at concentrations of 2. Remarkably, no medium changes or manipula- tion of the cell cultures were required during the 2-week expansion Ex vivo NK cell expansion without feeder cells process, with expanded cells containing a highly pure population of Some clinical studies of adoptive NK cell transfer have used 32 activated NK cells ( 95% CD3 /CD56 ). NK cells expanded short-term (12-18 hours) IL-2–activated NK cells. IL-2 alone using this approach underwent typical phenotypical and functional expands small numbers of NK cells, typically 10- to 20-fold after 14 changes observed with cytokine-induced NK cell activation, includ- days of cell culture, far less than murine studies predict would be ing up-regulation of TRAIL and enhanced cytotoxicity against needed to mediate antitumor effects in humans with cancer. Sutlu et K562 and other tumor cell lines, compared with fresh NK cells. These cells were activated ex vivo, being more ex vivo NK cell activation with cytokine-alone-containing medium. Expanded cell cultures contained 10% to 80% compared with NK cells expanded in medium without NAM, (average 38%) CD3 /CD56 NK cells with signiﬁcant numbers of perhaps the consequence of CD62L up-regulation. Hematology 2013 235 Ex vivo NK cell expansion using feeder cells RCC cells) higher levels of IFN , IL-2, FasL, and TRAIL. The Several different methods (Figure 1) using feeder cells or APCs net effect of changes in NK cell phenotype and cytokine have been developed recently to expand large numbers of highly secretion resulted in expanded NK cells having markedly higher activated NK cells ex vivo, providing the opportunity to study the levels of cytotoxicity against K562 and various other tumor cell full potential of adoptive NK cell immunotherapy in humans. Utilization of feeder cells in NK cell turing Practice (GMP) conditions and a third-party irradiated cultures can dramatically enhance NK cell expansion numbers allogeneic EBV-LCL feeder line (initially TM-LCL produced by ex vivo, and this technique has been used recently for the large-scale the Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope, and then later expansion of clinical-grade NK cells. We are currently performing a clinical efﬁcacy after adoptive infusion. For example, protocols using allogeneic NK cell ity. These enriched possibility of severe GVHD,28,47 whereas NK cells given in the NK cells are then frozen in multiple aliquots and can be used for context of an autologous infusion may be more permissive of T-cell subsequent thawing and ex vivo expansion. With expanded NK cell products, many centers will enriched NK cells are placed in culture and are then expanded perform sterility cultures 24 hours before and the day of product ex vivo in Baxter bags over 14-27 days using the SMI-EBV-LCL release, as well as a gram stain, PCR for mycoplasma, testing for feeder cell line as above. After treatment with bortezomib, cohorts 1 endotoxin, and ﬂow cytometry. At the National Heart, Lung, and through 4 received a single infusion of ex vivo–expanded NK cells Blood Institute (NHLBI), NK cells expanded using EBV-LCL are on day 0 in a dose-escalating fashion (up to a dose of 1 108 NK required on the day of release to contain at least 90% NK cells cells/kg). Cohorts 5-7 received 1 108 NK cells/kg on day 0 and (CD3 /CD56 ), have less than 5% contaminating CD3 T cells and a second escalating dose of NK cells (from the same NK cell CD19 B cells, and a viability of at least 70% as measured by culture) infused on day 5 (up to a dose of 1 109 NK cells/kg, 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining. Patients with stable disease or regression were eligible to receive additional cycles of therapy. A total of 78 NK cells expanded using irradiated EBV-LCL feeder cells. NK cells on the day of harvest expanded a median 198-fold selection. Using this technique, expansions of NK cells in the of harvest (Figure 3B). This study has established that large range of 800- to 1000-fold could be achieved in 2 weeks in a closed numbers of highly pure clinical-grade NK cells can reproducibly system using Baxter PL732 bags. EBV-LCL feeder cell eradication be expanded ex vivo using irradiated EBV-LCL feeder cells with from 2-week cell cultures was conﬁrmed by absence of detectable NK cells expanding a median 3637-fold after 19-22 days of ex EBV-encoded early small RNAs.
Results indicated no significant differences between lamotrigine and lithium for rate of improvement in mean MRS scores (58% compared with 58%; P=NS) order clomiphene 100 mg on line. However cheap clomiphene 50 mg overnight delivery, these results should be interpreted with caution in light of the low dose of lithium order cheap clomiphene on line. In addition, Appendix B of the FDA Medical Review of the NDA materials for lamotrigine in bipolar disorders provides brief summaries of studies of lamotrigine, including SCAA2008 and SCAB2009, but these were not available to us as those pages were withheld from the online report with reasons given as ”Trade Secret/Confidential. One compared gabapentin 900 to 3600 mg/d with placebo as add-on treatment in 117 patients with persistent bipolar disorder symptoms despite ongoing therapy with standard mood 53 stabilizers. After 10 weeks, improvement in YMRS scores were significantly greater in the placebo group (-9. The second trial used a crossover design to compare 6-week treatment periods with gabapentin 3987 mg, lamotrigine 274 mg, and placebo monotherapies in 31 patients refractory or intolerant to prior treatments 54 with standard mood stabilizers. Patients received all 3 agents sequentially, divided by 1-week washout periods. On the basis of an overall CGI score much or very much improved, response rates for gabapentin (26%) were significantly lower than for lamotrigine (52%; P=0. Phenytoin A single trial evaluated the acute antimanic effects of phenytoin when used for 5 weeks in combination with haloperidol in patients with either bipolar I disorder, manic type (N=12), or 55 schizoaffective disorder, manic type (N=18). The results were stratified by diagnosis, allowing for isolation of phenytoin’s effect in the subset of patients with bipolar I disorder. Interpretation of findings is limited by lack of information about whether or not the comparison groups were similar at baseline. At week 5, in the subset of patients with bipolar disorder there was added improvement with phenytoin compared with placebo for scores on the BPRS (23. Hypomania Oxcarbazepine The outcomes of treating hypomania with oxcarbazepine 1350 mg monotherapy or adjunct therapy were compared with valproate 1167 mg in 1 small, open-label, outcome assessor-blinded Antiepileptic drugs Page 26 of 117 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project 56 trial of 30 patients. A variety of concomitant medications were used by 53% of patients in the oxcarbazepine group and 40% in the valproate group. Twice as many patients in the oxcarbazepine group were using concomitant antidepressants (40% compared with 20%), and patients in the oxcarbazepine group were significantly younger (30 compared with 37 years; P=0. After 8 weeks, mean reduction in YMRS score with oxcarbazepine (-13. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, as it is unclear how the between-groups imbalances at baseline may have biased patient outcomes. Maintenance of response: Manic/mixed episodes Valproate 57- We included 8 trials of maintenance treatment comparing valproate monotherapy with placebo 62 57, 63, 64 or lithium in patients previously experiencing acute mania. A summary of results from 60, 61 all but 2 of the included trials was available in a good-quality systematic review and we will 20 summarize those findings here. We will separately summarize the findings of the 2 remaining 60, 61 61 trials, one of which was carried out in patients with comorbid alcoholism. Collectively, 6 trials included in a review by Soares-Weiser and colleagues randomized 347 patients to valproate, 231 to lithium, and 102 to placebo and ranged from 6 to 20 months in duration. Two trials enrolled only patients with bipolar I 57, 64 58 disorder. One trial enrolled only patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. And another trial enrolled only women with borderline personality disorder and comorbid bipolar II 59 depression. To determine the efficacy of valproate in preventing relapse in patients with bipolar disorder, Soares-Weiser and colleagues combined data across trials using a fixed-effects model. Although the trials were clinically heterogenous, no statistical heterogeneity was detected. Compared with placebo, valproate significantly reduced the odds of depressive, but not manic, outcomes. The effectiveness of valproate in reducing odds of all relapses was comparable to lithium. Additionally, results of a secondary analysis from one of the individual trials indicated that the comparability of valproate and lithium did not differ based on whether initial 65 symptoms were euphoric or dysphoric. Odds ratios for relapse of bipolar disorder treated with valproate (Soares- Weiser 2007) Number of Treatment comparison studies N Odds ratio (95% CI) Valproate compared with placebo All relapses 1 281 0. This was an open-label trial that randomized 201 adults with bipolar disorder to either valproate 1504 mg or lithium 1213 mg and measured quality of life using the SF-36. At the end of 12 months no difference in quality-of-life outcomes was found between valproate and lithium. However, these analyses appeared to be based on only the 40% of patients that actually completed the study and for that reason should be interpreted with caution. While several trials looked at monotherapy, 1 trial has evaluated potential benefits of 60 combining valproate with lithium. In a trial that was not included in the meta-analysis above, 12 patients with bipolar I disorder were randomly assigned to open-label valproate plus lithium or placebo plus lithium and followed for up to 12 months. Although significantly fewer patients assigned to valproate plus lithium experienced a relapse compared with placebo plus lithium (0% compared with 71%; P=0. Prevention of bipolar depression in patients treated for manic/mixed episodes. Patients with recent mania who had previously achieved response with valproate were randomized to 57, 62 valproate, lithium, or placebo and were followed for 1 year. While statistically significant differences were not found between the 3 groups in the primary outcome (time to recurrence of any mood episode), the difference between valproate and lithium reached a P value of 0. A difference favoring valproate over lithium was also seen for time to a depressive episode, but again statistical significance was not achieved (P=0. Similar results were found for discontinuations due to any mood episode (mania or depression) except that valproate was found to have significantly fewer discontinuations due to depression than placebo (6% and 16%, respectively; P=0. Carbamazepine 66-78 79 We included trials comparing carbamazepine monotherapy with lithium or placebo and evaluated efficacy for prophylaxis of recurrence of symptoms in bipolar disorder. Most trials involving lithium enrolled patients diagnosed with any bipolar disorder (I, II, or unspecified) and were heterogeneous with regard to duration, sample size, quality of methods, and method of outcome assessment (Table 5). Regardless of sources of heterogeneity, however, most trials indicated no significant difference between carbamazepine and lithium in preventing relapse, with their trends generally favoring lithium. The exceptions came from 2 of the 3 shortest trials, which followed patients for only 1 year; they reported nonsignificant trends favoring 66, 69 carbamazepine. In order to more precisely estimate the comparative effectiveness of carbamazepine and lithium in preventing relapse in persons with bipolar disorder, a recent good-quality Health Technology Assessment conducted by Soares-Weiser calculated odds ratios for each of a 66, 68-70, 80 20 majority of these same trials and, where appropriate, pooled results across trials. Pooled analyses were stratified by whether investigators defined relapse events as hospitalizations only or as assessed changes in symptoms. Additional subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of type of bipolar disorder and inclusion of patients who were randomized during an acute episode. However, interpretation of the findings from subgroup analyses was limited by small sample sizes. In the main analyses lithium was favored as the more effective agent for preventing relapse-related psychiatric hospitalizations (odds ratio 0. In contrast, in a subgroup of 40 bipolar II disorder patients from 1 trial, carbamazepine tended to be more effective in preventing relapse-related hospitalizations (odds ratio 2. Relapse outcomes in bipolar disorder treated prophylactically with carbamazepine or lithium Trial Duration Result (carbamazepine compared N in years Outcome with lithium) Watkins 1987 3.
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