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Sodium bicarbonate vs sodium chloride for the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography: a randomized trial discount advair diskus line. Effects of intra-arterial and intravenous iso-osmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) on the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis purchase advair diskus in united states online. Relationship of the time interval between cardiac catheterization and elective coronary artery bypass surgery with postprocedural acute kidney injury 250 mcg advair diskus free shipping. Acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery: current understanding and future directions. A simple prediction rule for significant renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Optimal cutoff levels of more sensitive cardiac troponin assays for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction in patients with renal dysfunction. Interpreting cardiac troponin results from high- sensitivity assays in chronic kidney disease without acute coronary syndrome. The implications of renal impairment among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The management of acute coronary syndromes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Mortality, Hospitalization, and Technique Failure in Daily Home Hemodialysis and Matched Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Matched Cohort Study. Cardiac findings at necropsy in patients with chronic kidney disease maintained on chronic hemodialysis. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of infective endocarditis in hemodialysis patients. Tissue valves are preferable for patients with end- stage renal disease: an aggregate meta-analysis. Modifiable risk factors associated with sudden cardiac arrest within hemodialysis clinics. Outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease and implantable cardiac defibrillator: primary versus secondary prevention. Should we screen for coronary artery disease in asymptomatic chronic dialysis patients? Coronary artery disease assessment and intervention in renal transplant patients: analysis from the KiHeart Cohort. Effects of frequent hemodialysis on blood pressure: Results from the randomized frequent hemodialysis network trials. The Impact of Arteriovenous Fistulae for Hemodialysis on the Cardiovascular System. Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on residual renal function in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition or angiotensin receptor blockade in dialysis patients: a nationwide data survey and propensity analysis. Optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with stable coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease. Short- and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting or drug-eluting stent implantation for multivessel coronary artery disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cardiac disease evaluation and management among kidney and liver transplantation candidates: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Effect of elective coronary angiography on glomerular filtration rate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Because most of these disorders are uncommon, many clinicians are not familiar with them or with the principles involved in their management. In both acute and chronic clinical situations, consultation with a cardiologist is often appropriately sought, and is expected to provide diagnostic and therapeutic assistance. To facilitate effective consultation, in this chapter we will briefly review the current understanding of normal autonomic cardiovascular control and the normal responses to autonomic function testing, and then review the autonomic disorders that the consulting cardiologist is likely to encounter. We will describe the current understanding of these disorders, address how to arrive at a diagnosis, and review effective initial approaches to management. Even though many autonomic disorders are rare, it is worth the effort to try to understand them, because understanding provides opportunities to 2 improve or even extend lives and educates us about normal physiology. We will also briefly touch on specific autonomic aspects of several cardiovascular disorders that are primarily covered in other chapters. The central nervous system receives information about that environment (both internal and external) via a broad range of inputs as diverse as visual sensors, postural sensors, volume and pressure sensors, and others, and integrates this information, primarily in the medulla. The major components of the autonomic response system are the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric components, with the first two providing the major integrated vasomotor response. The effects of autonomic input to the cardiac conduction system, the myocardium itself, and the coronary vasculature are discussed in Chapters 22, 34, and 46. This system is made up of an integrated complex of neurons supporting a group of reflexes (Fig. It includes (1) the arterial baroreceptors, whose sensory endings lie within the aortic arch, at the origin of the right subclavian artery and within the carotid sinuses, and (2) the cardiopulmonary, or low-pressure, receptors in the walls of the atria and the pulmonary artery. When healthy adult humans are at rest, the baroreflex tonically inhibits sympathetic activity and enhances parasympathetic activity, so that parasympathetic tone predominates. Cross-spectral transfer function analysis can be used to study the interactions and determine baroreflex sensitivity. Box D: Plasma catecholamine levels are essential markers for sympathetic activity. These mechanoreceptors are stretch-dependent, so that elevation of vascular pressure increases the discharge frequency of the branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve innervating the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus, and of the aortic nerve, which innervates the aortic arch baroreceptors, and then combines with the vagus nerve. Importantly, baroreceptor function varies between individuals, and the set point can vary in the same individual at different times or in different experimental or disease states. For example, the set point is often increased in chronic hypertension and decreased in chronic hypotension. Cardiopulmonary Baroreceptors The low-pressure cardiopulmonary receptors are located in the heart and the venae cavae, and are activated primarily in response to volume. The latter leads to an increase in salt and water excretion and reduces the sensed increase in volume. Chemoreflexes and the Diving Reflex Sympathetic activity can also be modulated by the chemoreflexes, which respond to hypoxemia and hypercapnia. When either or both occur, the reflex response produces hyperventilation and sympathetic vasoconstriction. The actual peripheral chemoreceptors, which respond to hypoxia, are found in the carotid bodies, and the central chemoreceptors, found in multiple areas in the brainstem, sense the pH of the interstitial fluid of the brain. For example, both hypoxemia and hypercapnia produce hyperventilation and sympathetic vasoconstriction.
About 30% is excreted ● Atomoxetine: hypokalaemia increases risk unchanged in the urine with the remainder of ventricular arrhythmias cheap advair diskus online american express. Signiﬁcant concentrations occur in bile discount advair diskus 100 mcg fast delivery, ● 600 mg of benzylpenicillin sodium (1 mega but in patients with normal renal function unit) contains 1 buy 100mcg advair diskus with mastercard. Corticosteroid: ● Antibacterials: metabolism accelerated by ● Suppression of inﬂammatory and allergic rifampicin; metabolism possibly inhibited disorders by erythromycin; concentration of ● Congenital adrenal hyperplasia isoniazid possibly reduced. Te ● Cytotoxics: possible increased risk of elimination of betaxolol is primarily by the bradycardia with crizotinib. Potentially hazardous interactions with other drugs ● Anaesthetics: enhanced hypotensive eﬀect. No studies have been done in renal failure although the pharmacokinetic data indicates Reference: that renal elimination is a minor excretory 1. Dose as in (with orchidectomy or gonadorelin therapy) ﬂ u x normal renal function. Fifty per cent is metabolised by the asystole, severe hypotension and heart liver to inactive metabolites which are then failure with verapamil. Te remaining ● Cytotoxics: possible increased risk of 50% is excreted by the kidneys in an bradycardia with crizotinib. Bivalirudin ● Dose recommendations vary from country to is metabolised by proteases, including country; doses above are from New Zealand. Inactivation takes place during enzymatic breakdown by bleomycin sodium chloride 0. At steady-state, the exposure ratio for the two diastereomers is approximately 2:1, with the predominant diastereomer being pharmacologically active. Bortezomib in recurrent and/or cytochrome P450 enzymes, 3A4, 2C19, refractory multiple myeloma. At steady metabolite is mainly excreted unchanged via state, trough levels are 3–4 times higher the bile. Blood concentrations of active metabolite is greater than in healthy ciclosporin decreased by 50%. In patients with evidence of the ● Lipid lowering agents: concentration of presence of cholestasis, the exposure to the simvastatin reduced by 45% – monitor active metabolite may be increased. In patients with severe renal impairment ● Oestrogens and progestogens: may be (creatinine clearance 15–30 mL/min), plasma failure of contraception – use alternative concentrations of bosentan decreased by method. Maximum weight calculation 100 kg ● Cytotoxics: increased risk of pulmonary toxicity with bleomycin – avoid. Volume of distribution 1–3 ● Concomitant administration of macrolide (L/kg) antibiotics may elevate bromocriptine Half-life – normal/ 8–20/– levels. It undergoes extensive ﬁrst- pass biotransformation in the liver, reﬂected by complex metabolite proﬁles and by almost complete absence of parent drug in urine and faeces. In plasma the elimination half life is 3–4 hours for the parent drug and 50 hours for the inactive metabolites. Te parent drug and its metabolites are also completely excreted via the liver with only 6% being eliminated via the kidney. Dose as in ● Topical preparations: apply 1–2 times daily ﬂ u x normal renal function. In patients or pimozide if hypokalaemia occurs with chronic renal failure the liver takes more – avoid with pimozide; enhanced importance as an excretory pathway although hypotensive eﬀect with phenothiazines. Hydroxybupropion is the major ● Hormone antagonists: possibly inhibits metabolite, produced by the metabolism metabolism of tamoxifen to active of bupropion by the cytochrome P450 metabolites – avoid. Volume of distribution 4870 litres ● Antivirals: avoid concomitant use (L/kg) with atazanavir, indinavir, ritonavir & Half-life – normal/ α, β, and γ half- saquinavir. Cabergoline is mainly eliminated via the faeces (72%); a small proportion is excreted in the urine (18%). Salmon calcitonin is primarily and almost exclusively degraded in the kidneys, forming pharmacologically inactive fragments of the molecule. Terefore, the metabolic clearance is much lower in patients with end-stage renal failure than in healthy subjects. Calcitriol is inactivated in both the kidney ● Check plasma calcium concentrations at and the intestine, through the formation regular intervals (initially weekly). It is excreted in the bile and transport in the gut and bone may be faeces and is subject to enterohepatic aﬀected. Calcium is absorbed mainly from the small intestine by active ● Monitor for hypercalcaemia particularly if transport and passive diﬀusion. Dose as in normal Sorbisterit: Oral: 20 g 1–3 times daily in ﬂ u x renal function. Volume of distribution – ● Oral: Mix with a little water, sweetened if (L/kg) preferred. Candesartan is mainly eliminated unchanged ● Potassium salts: increased risk of via urine and bile and only to a minor extent hyperkalaemia. A large ● Contraindicated in severe renal amount is excreted as respiratory carbon impairment due to increased incidence of dioxide; urea and other metabolites are also grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions in patients produced. Allow 2–3 minutes Antibacterial agent in combination with for complete dissolution. Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor: 10–20 Start low – adjust according to ● Hypertension response. In vitro studies suggest that ● Diuretics: enhanced hypotensive eﬀect; captopril and its metabolites may undergo hyperkalaemia with potassium-sparing reversible interconversions. Captopril and its metabolites are excreted ● Lithium: reduced excretion, possibility of in urine. In the ● Trigeminal neuralgia urine, about 2% of the dose is recovered ● Prophylaxis in manic depressive illness as unchanged drug and about 1% as the ● Unlicensed: alcohol withdrawal and pharmacologically active 10, 11-epoxide diabetic neuropathy metabolite. Tiamazole glomerulonephritis associated with is metabolised, probably by the liver, and the development of antineutrophil excreted in the urine. Less than 12% of a dose cytoplasmic antibodies in patients of thiamazole may be excreted as unchanged receiving thiourea anti- thyroid drugs. Excretion is primarily by ● Patients with abnormal kidney function glomerular ﬁltration in the urine, with 70% of or receiving concomitant therapy with the drug excreted within 24 hours, most of it nephrotoxic drugs are likely to experience in the ﬁrst 6 hours. Intravenous carmustine is rapidly ● Can further dilute the reconstituted metabolised, and no intact drug is detectable solution with 500 mL of sodium chloride after 15 minutes. Approximately 30% of kidney size: progressive azotaemia and a dose is excreted in the urine after 24 hours, renal failure have been reported in patients and 60–70% of the total dose after 96 hours. Terminal half-life of the metabolites is about ● Carmustine has been used at normal dose 1 hour. Start with ● Fingolimod: possibly increased risk of low doses and titrate according to bradycardia. Start with low ● Sympathomimetics: severe hypertension doses and titrate according to with adrenaline and noradrenaline and response. Te initial short containing glucose; add to 250 mL sodium α-phase occurs immediately post-infusion chloride 0. Guidelines for Prescribing Drugs the urine in the ﬁrst 6 hours by glomerular in Adults with Impaired Renal Function. Pharmacokinetics absorbed dose) is excreted unchanged in of newer drugs in patients with renal the urine via glomerular ﬁltration within impairment (part I).
Differentiating cells exit the cell cycle and undergo a complex series of changes in gene expression quality 500mcg advair diskus, eventually resulting in cell death and desquamation purchase 100 mcg advair diskus amex. For example generic advair diskus 250 mcg mastercard, most cervical cancers and precancers, develop in a region of the cervix referred to as the transformation zone (Bodily and Laimins 2010). This is achieved by binding virions initially to the basement membrane prior to transfer to the basal keratinocyte cell surface receptor molecules (Roberts et al. Binding to these negatively charged polysaccharides is usually electrostatic and relatively nonspeciﬁc (Mercer et al. These unbranched polysaccharides undergo a series of modiﬁcations, including N-deacetylation and N-sulfation of the glucosamine units, C-5 epimerization of glucuronic to iduronic acid residues, and ﬁnally O-sulfation at the 2-O-position of hexuronic acid and at the 3-O- and 6- O-positions of glucosamine units (Esko and Lindahl 2001). The primary attachment is mediated by surface-exposed lysine residues located at the rim of capsomeres (Knappe et al. Residues from two or more L1 monomers within a capsomere may form a single receptor binding site, ﬁve of which are present per capsomere (Knappe et al. Incorporation of an N-terminally truncated form of L2 into virions cannot bypass the furin dependence (Sapp and Bienkowska-Haba 2009). This suggests that the N-terminus is essential for the L2 protein to adopt a correct conformation within the assembled capsid (Sapp and Bienkowska-Haba 2009). Mutation of these cysteine residues rendered mutant virions non-infectious (Campos and Ozbun 2009). Several models have been suggested to explain these com- plicated and not yet well understood processes. Earlier studies have suggested that clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis are two main pathways used by non- enveloped viruses to infect cells. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis involves the formation of clathrin-coated pits and fusion to early endosomes. The entry mechanisms and the molecules involved are contradictory and still a subject of scientiﬁc debate. Acidic pH acts as a trigger for many viruses to undergo conformational changes, leading to any number of events that facilitate endosomal escape of virion proteins and/or viral genomes. Such events may include modiﬁcation of the viral-receptor interaction, exposure of protease digestion motifs, viral envelope-endosomal membrane fusion, or partial to complete uncoating of the viral genome (Doms and Helenius 1986; Stegmann et al. L2 is required for egress of viral genomes from endosomes, but not for initial uptake, or uncoating; a 23-amino-acid peptide at the C terminus of L2 is necessary for this function (Kamper et al. Furin cleavage of L2 is also essential for endosomal escape despite occurring on the cell surface (Sapp and Bienkowska-Haba 2009; Richards et al. For cytoplasmic transport, L2 interacts with the microtubule network via the motor protein complex dynein (Florin et al. The L2 region inter- acting with dynein has been mapped to the C-terminal 40 amino acids (Florin et al. The cellular differentiation proﬁle and viral productive program are indicated on the left and right sides, respectively. E2 initiates viral genome replica- tion by loading the viral helicase E1 onto the origin of replication (Berg and Stenlund 1997; Mohr et al. During mitosis, E2 ensures accurate partitioning of the replicated viral genomes to daughter cells by tethering them to host mitotic chromosomes (Bastien and McBride 2000; Lehman and Botchan 1998). Throughout the viral life cycle E6 and E7 modulate cell-cycle regulators to maintain long-term replication competence (Bodily and Laimins 2010). Viral early proteins, E1, E2, E6, and E7 are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated cells (De Geest et al. Initial infection is followed by a proliferative-phase that results in an increase in the number of basal cells harbouring viral episomes. The number of viral genomes, and the pattern of viral gene expression in cell lines derived from low-grade cervical lesions, appears to reﬂect those found in the basal layer of naturally-occurring lesions (Doorbar 2005). For the production of infectious virions, papillomaviruses must amplify their viral genomes and package them into infectious particles. Throughout the virus life cycle, the relative levels of different viral proteins are controlled by promoter usage and by differen- tial splice site selection, with an increase in the level of E1 and E2 allowing an increase in viral copy number in the upper epithelial layers (Ozbun and Meyers 1998a). To compensate the role of E7 in reducing unlimited replication potential, high- risk E6 proteins have evolved to target the tumor suppressor p53 for degradation, preventing cell growth inhibition in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. These results indicate that the role of E6 is not to overcome p53 induced apoptosis as previously proposed from studies in cell lines. As highlighted by this recent study, the exact role of E6 in the viral life cycle remains to be understood. As a result, virus copy-number ampliﬁes from 50 to 200 copies to several thousands of copies per cell (Bodily and Laimins 2010; Bedell et al. Genetic analyses have shown that both E1^E4 and E5 are necessary and contribute to the activation of late viral functions upon differentiation (Fehrmann et al. Viruses adapt to this constraint by causing G2 arrest, thus creating a window of opportunity for their own ampliﬁcation (Chow et al. The ability to induce G2/M arrest is a feature of viruses from a range of different families. It has also been reported that low level caspase activation by E6 and E7 upon differentiation, induces cleavage of the E1 protein, which results in enhanced binding of E1 to the origin and the ability to replicate in an E2- independent manner (Moody et al. The primary role of miR-203 is to suppress the proliferative capacity of epithelial cells upon differentiation (Sonkoly et al. One signiﬁcant target of miR-203 is the transcription factor p63, a p53 family member which is known to be critical in the development of stratifying epithelia in human (Rinne et al. Since p63 promotes cellular proliferation, reduced levels of p63 are important for normal epithelial differentiation in which cells exit the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that lead to activation of the late promoter and up- regulation of E1/E2 expression are not yet well understood, and it remains possible that this promoter is constitutively active at all stages during the productive cycle (Doorbar 2005). The newly replicated genomes would serve as templates for the further expression of E1 and E2, which would facilitate additional ampliﬁcation of viral genomes and in turn, further expression of the E1 and E2 replication proteins (Middleton et al. In two dimensional gels, this pattern has been demonstrated by the well- characterized T4 in vitro replication system (Belanger et al. The loss of E7 function initiates a switch from the early viral replicative phase to the late phase, during which the capsid proteins are expressed for virion morphogenesis (Wang et al. After translation in the cytoplasm, L1 proteins pentamerize into capsomeres, and are then imported into the nucleus using the cellular alpha and beta karyopherins (Bird et al. In natural lesions, expression and nuclear translocation of L2 precedes expression of L1 (Florin et al. Nuclear translocation of L2 also requires Hsc70 that transiently associates with viral capsids during the integration of L2, possibly via the L2 C terminus. Comple- tion of virus assembly results in displacement of Hsc70 from virions (Florin et al. Virus like particles, however can be assembled by expression of L1 alone, the L2 protein is thought to enhance packaging and infectivity (Stauffer et al. L2 interacts with L1 pentamers through the hydrophobic region in its C-terminus (Finnen et al.
An autopsy has always been considered kin had the legal right to object to conventional autopsy desirable in the eyes of the law order advair diskus amex. A signifcant change in practice resulted from the intro- As part of the routine admission process to the institute duction of the new Coroner’s Act in 2008 purchase advair diskus amex. At the deceased’s family assumed a more active role in the the end of 2009 order advair diskus online pills, the institute had scanned just under decision-making process with respect to the “need” for 20,000 cases. In 2008, the institute performed 2404 part of the coroner’s and institute’s case fles. If a full conventional autopsy is performed, the subsequently had a death certifcate provided by their case is referred to a second pathologist who then com- general practitioner. All bodies admitted to the insti- Pathologists tend to have a wider view of what the tute also have a set of routine external photographs medicolegal autopsy entails. Whereas the coroner is pri- with further photographs taken of specifc injuries or marily concerned with determining a reasonable cause matters of interest. These included pericardial tamponade, massive hemotho- rax, and large intracerebral hemorrhages. When there is a his- of an elderly man with a history of hypertension who col- tory of depression, empty medication containers and a lapsed and fell to the ground at a family function. As one sequentially removes each of these positive fea- ἀ e case could reasonably be completed as death from tures of the death, individual forensic pathologists will intracerebral hemorrhage associated with hypertension. In these circum- It is important that there is consistency between stances the pathologist may still be comfortable in pro- the recommendations for complete autopsy examina- viding the same cause of death. When there is no past tion by diferent pathologists at any particular institu- medical history available and the episode of collapse tion. Individual practitioner decision-making practices is not witnessed, the pathologist could reasonably take should not deviate substantially from immediate or a conservative view and recommend a full autopsy distant colleagues, and review mechanisms must be in examination. Cause of Death ἀ ese injuries are usually over bony prominences and extensor surfaces of the body and are familiar to foren- Fundamental requirements of a coroner’s system include sic pathologists. However, these injuries may persuade the provision of a reasonable cause of death, the manner the pathologist to take a more conservative stance and of death, and whether a person or persons contributed recommend a full autopsy examination. Deaths reported to the coroner for medi- ἀ e next level of complexity occurs when the indi- colegal investigation include natural deaths where the vidual had been on anticoagulant therapy. It is likely that in ἀ e most common cause of natural death in our such cases the pathologist will recommend a full autopsy community is coronary artery atherosclerosis (ischemic to exclude foul play. In these cases the It is here where the experience of the forensic recommendation provided to the coroner in relation to pathologist is vital. To laypersons, and a good number of the need for autopsy takes into account the past medical medical practitioners, the described case with multiple history, risk factors for heart disease, a clinical history abrasions and bruises could appear suspicious. It does around the time of death, and the absence of injuries on not necessarily follow, however, that a full conventional external examination. On the other hand, a completely unremarkable Minimally invasive autopsy, as described previously, external examination may be irrelevant to the decision- is currently not a suitable method for the routine inves- making process for full autopsy in cases where there tigation of deaths in forensic cases. Evidence of appear to have potential in specifc forensic issues such a break-in, threats made against the deceased during as obtaining a core biopsy of the pulmonary artery and life, and reports of a disturbance are situations where a contents when the sole concern in the case is whether pul- full autopsy is mandatory. Further pathologists, there are times when signifcant force can be studies, which include conventional autopsy confrmation applied to a victim with no external evidence of trauma. An used to demonstrate an abnormal metacarpal index unwitnessed death from a cardiac arrhythmia associated (arachnodactyly) . Other phenotypic features such as with coronary artery atherosclerosis when an acute coro- a high arched palate do not appear to have well-defned nary lesion is not identifed is less authoritative. Cases of forme always the possibility that the death could have resulted fruste of Marfan’s syndrome with aortic dissection but from an arrhythmia associated with a profound metabolic without the other usual phenotypic features are also disturbance, undiagnosed channelopathy, or subtle neuro- known to occur. We have also seen a number of instances display complex fractures in a far more succinct manner of hemopericardium from rupture of the right ventricu- than a lengthy autopsy report. Furthermore, the time of Donor Tissue imaging some methods to reduce the frequency of error Bank and mortuary staf is not wasted in retrieving tis- includes dual or multiple reporting of images and insti- sue that is subsequently discarded. Expert radiol- negative fndings, and correlate the autopsy fndings ogists are known to make errors in clinical diagnosis . It has been reported that the most common errors made by radiologists in clinical practice are errors in percep- tion . Perception errors are believed to account for about one-half of errors in radiology. Recognition errors occur when an abnormal- pleted a diploma in forensic medicine through Monash ity is seen but is not recognized as being abnormal. Naturally, if one sees an obvious cause of death institution, a formal teaching program and associated in the initial survey of the axial views such as a large qualifcation in forensic radiology has to evolve . Locard’s principle states that when there is contact between two objects there will be an exchange between It is impractical for the vast majority of forensic pathol- the objects, that is, so-called trace evidence. It is considered best practice to perform a conven- It will be important for forensic pathologists to dem- tional autopsy examination with associated forensic onstrate their profciency in reading the images or con- science assessment, including collection of trace evi- fdence in the system will surely diminish. Such must be said that such cases are rare and the identifca- hemorrhages have been termed “bone bruises” . We have examined a case of death secondary to Audit blunt force pelvic trauma in a middle-aged man who was struck by a train. As a major selection of 100 cases per year that are reviewed by a issue in the case was the source of the hemorrhage we second pathologist. Each month, 10% of admissions assessed venous anatomy in a small series of cases . In our substantial errors discussed at an internal radiological/ previous coronial system, the cases that were initially pathological meeting. In most busy forensic institutes one is It is important to emphasize that although illustrative not going to have the luxury of a full-time radiologist images are selected to show some important fndings in providing a report on each case. A great many of these pathologies show fractures seen and no evidence of cervical spine injury. One is required to integrate the ἀ e pathologist referred the images to the radiologist as available clinical past history, the reported scene fndings he felt there may be an underlying dissection of the aorta. In deaths where there is a history of heart disease Forensic Issues or signifcant risk factors for heart disease the coronary A hemopericardium is easily seen on a postmortem artery calcifcation may be deemed to be important. Although it is important to maintain a high degree A recent history of chest pain radiating to the jaw or of uniformity in such decision-making processes, one arm may suggest a myocardial infarct as the underlying must allow a level of professional autonomy between cause of death. In elderly persons it may a past history of emphysema was found deceased in her not be as important to determine the exact underlying K13836. The axial images often show a hematocrit effect with settling of erythrocytes to the dependent aspect of the sac. In this case the dissection had not ruptured into the pericardial sac or pleural space. Presumably the deceased’s chest pain and collapse related to the dissection involving the coronary artery. Whether there is a complete obstruction to blood fow through the pulmo- disease such as Marfan’s syndrome causing the dissection nary artery.