By K. Mortis. Principia College.
In humans order famvir 250 mg with mastercard, olivary the lateral hemispheres and particularly the den- lesions virtually always include the adjacent tate nuclei precedes by about 100 ms activity in pyramid whose injury overshadows the cer- the motor cortex and the onset of movement discount famvir online. In addition to the gait ataxia and chiefy concerned with the learning and storage of intention tremor discount 250 mg famvir overnight delivery, dysarthria may develop. The major input to the lateral parts of the affect the patient’s ability to learn new motor cerebellar hemispheres originates in the associa- tasks. As has been described pre- The cerebellum infuences motor centers at various viously, activity in this part of the cerebellum and levels almost exclusively through the cerebellar in its nucleus, the dentate, precedes the activity nuclei. These paired neuronal masses, embed- in the motor cortex that ultimately commands a ded in the medullary white matter near the roof particular movement. The cortical area anatomically related to each nucleus is the principal source of Purkinje neuron input to the nucleus. Dentatofugal fbers pass to the contralat- eral ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus, from The posterior lobe, by far the largest of the cer- whence there is a thalamocortical projection to ebellar lobes, has massive reciprocal connections the motor cortex. This far the largest group of cerebellar mossy fber affer- prominent bundle arises mainly from the dentate ents, the corticopontocerebellar projections. Most nucleus, although it also contains a considerable of the corticopontine fbers arise from the senso- number of fbers from the interposed nucleus and rimotor, premotor, and posterior parietal parts of a small contribution from the fastigial nucleus. The pontine nuclei give rise of the inferior colliculus, it decussates before to the transverse pontine fbers that, after crossing continuing rostrally through the red nucleus and and proceeding through the contralateral basilar the prerubral feld in the dorsomedial part of the pons, form the massive middle cerebellar pedun- subthalamus. Chapter 9 The Cerebellum: Ataxia 111 Posterior Lobe Syndrome affected limbs, thereby revealing the underlying basis for the ataxic movements. Normal, rapid The neocerebellar or posterior lobe syndrome, single-joint movements are characterized by an commonly resulting from cerebrovascular acci- initial accelerated movement by contraction dents, tumors, trauma, or degenerative diseases, of the agonist muscle, decelerated by an appro- is manifested by a loss of coordination of volun- priately timed contraction of the antagonist tary movements (ataxia) and decreased muscle muscle, and then fnally completed by a second tone, the latter being most prominent in acute small burst of activity in the agonist (reciprocal lesions. After damage to the lateral cer- the limb to a target without its progression ebellum, dentate nucleus, or its efferent projec- being interrupted by a swaying to and fro that tions, contraction of the agonist is not followed is perpendicular to the direction of the move- by timely reciprocal contraction of the antago- ment (Fig. This is referred to as intention nist muscle, resulting in the delayed slowing of tremor because it occurs only when a volitional the movement and overshooting the target. In movement is being performed; it is not present a simple single-joint movement, the inability to at rest. An unexpected release of the Various degrees of intention forearm results in patients striking themselves. These desynchronized contrac- tions result in abnormalities in controlling the range of movements (hypometric undershoot- Other manifestations of posterior lobe lesions, ing or hypermetric overshooting of the target) as described in the case at the beginning of this (Fig. Intention tremor is a manifestation chapter, are dysmetria, the inability to control of the altered agonist-antagonist contractions. The vermal and paravermal parts of the ante- rior lobe chiefy maintain coordination of limb movements while the movements are being exe- Pathophysiology of Limb Ataxia cuted, and, hence, the anterior lobe has strong Ataxia is characterized by abnormalities in the connections with the spinal cord (Fig. Chapter 9 The Cerebellum: Ataxia 113 Ventral lateral nucleus Dentatothalamic fibers in Intnernal capsule thalamic fasciculus posterior limb Dentatothalamic fibers in Mamillary body prerubral field of subthalamus Thalamus Superior colliculus Dentatothalamic fibers in red nucleus and its capsule Oculomotor nucleus Red nucleus Parieto-temporo-occipitopontine tract Pyramidal tract Cerebral crus Frontopontine tract Rostral midbrain Inferior colliculus Decussation of superior cerebellar Parieto-temporo-occipitopontine tract peduncle Cerebral crus Frontopontine tract Caudal midbrain Trochlear nerve Sup. Connections of the Anterior Lobe of this information is from muscular, joint, and cutaneous mechanoreceptors that project Through the spinal cord and, to a cer- monosynaptically via the spinocerebellar, cuneo- tain extent, the brainstem, the cerebellum cerebellar, and trigeminocerebellar tracts to the receives voluminous information from general vermal and paravermal parts of the anterior lobe sensory receptors throughout the body. Normal Hypermetria Hypometria Agonist Antagonist Figure 9-11 Rectifed electromyographic records illustrating the temporal pattern of agonist and antag- onist activation during movement in a normal patient and a patient with a posterior lobe syndrome. Chapter 9 The Cerebellum: Ataxia 115 Discrete proprioceptive information, chiefy 3. Enters the cerebellum through the superior from muscle spindles and tendon organs of indi- cerebellar peduncle and decussates to its origi- vidual lower limb muscles, and exteroceptive nal (ipsilateral) side information from small cutaneous receptive felds The medical importance of the ventral spi- reach the cerebellum through the dorsal spino- nocerebellar tract rivals that of the rostral spino- cerebellar tract. Neurons in the dorsal nucleus receive either pro- Trigeminocerebellar fbers carry information prioceptive or exteroceptive input directly from from the temporomandibular joint, masticatory collateral branches of primary afferent axons and external ocular muscles, and so forth. Sensory ascending in the lumbosacral parts of the gracile information also reaches the cerebellum via the tract. The axons of the dorsal nucleus of Clarke reticular formation, which receives input from ascend ipsilaterally as the dorsal spinocerebellar the spinal cord and brainstem. Through these connections, the anterior as well as in lateral medullary or inferior cer- lobe receives information about the impending ebellar peduncle lesions. When the tract is infuence of the corticospinal fbers on an ongo- damaged, cerebellar input from the ipsilateral ing movement. As a result, ipsilateral Axons from Purkinje neurons in the anterior lower limb ataxia occurs. Through the Equivalent types of information from the fastigial nucleus and its connections with the upper limb ascend in the cuneate tract to the vestibular nuclei and reticular formation, which accessory cuneate nucleus. Its neurons, which occur via the juxtarestiform part of the inferior resemble those of the Clarke column, give rise to cerebellar peduncle, the vermis of the anterior the cuneocerebellar tract that also enters the cer- lobe has a strong, bilateral infuence on head, ebellum through the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Through the the descending motor pathways on the spinal interposed nucleus and its connections with the gray matter and convergent proprioceptive and contralateral red nucleus and reticular formation, exteroceptive information from the entire lower which occur via the superior cerebellar peduncle limb reach the cerebellum through the ventral and its decussation (Fig. This tract differs from the part of the anterior lobe infuences the more dis- dorsal spinocerebellar tract not only because of its tal muscles of the limbs via the lateral descending different function but also because it: motor paths. Originates from neurons scattered in the The fastigial and interposed nuclei also send intermediate zone and anterior horn and fbers via the superior cerebellar peduncle to the along the border of the anterior horn at lum- motor thalamus, which, in turn, projects to the bar levels primary motor cortex. Sliding posed nucleus affects those pyramidal tract com- the heel of one foot smoothly down the shin of ponents related to distal limb movements. If the degeneration progresses posteriorly, the upper Anterior Lobe Syndrome limbs and speech may also be affected. Patients with anterior lobe syn- The focculonodular lobe, or vestibular part of drome suffer the loss of coordination chiefy in the cerebellum, is responsible for coordination of the lower limbs; they have marked gait instability the muscles associated with equilibrium and eye (Fig. Chapter 9 The Cerebellum: Ataxia 117 Superior colliculus Oculomotor nucleus Red nucleus Substantia nigra Oculomotor nerve Cerebral crus rootlets Rostral midbrain Decussation of sup. Vestibulospinal projections Flocculonodular Lobe and vestibuloocular projections then descend and ascend in the medial longitudinal fascicu- Direct and indirect impulses from the vestibu- lus to reach the motor neurons innervating the lar apparatus in the inner ear carry information axial muscles and the external ocular muscles, about position and movements of the head. The direct vestibulocerebellar impulses reach the cerebellum via central projections of the Flocculonodular Lobe Syndrome vestibular nerve without synapsing (Fig. The indirect vestibulocerebellar impulses come Lesions of the focculonodular lobe and posterior from the vestibular nuclei. Both groups enter vermis cause disturbances of balance manifested the cerebellum in the medial part of the infe- chiefy by a lack of coordination of the paraxial rior cerebellar peduncle, the juxtarestiform muscles, a condition referred to as truncal ataxia body (Fig. The patient has no control over the culonodular lobe and the adjacent parts of the axial muscles and, hence, attempts to walk on vermis. In severe cases, it is impossible for lonodular lobe infuence the vestibular nuclei the patient to sit or stand without falling. This and the adjacent reticular formation indirectly condition is most often seen in young children through the fastigial nuclei and directly from with medulloblastomas arising in the roof of the the Purkinje cells. The fastigiobulbar projec- fourth ventricle, although it may be encountered tions as well as the direct focculonodular pro- in older children and adults with other types of jections reach the vestibular nuclei through the tumors in the same region. Chapter 9 The Cerebellum: Ataxia 119 Flocculonodular lobe Vestibulocerebellar projections: direct and indirect Fastigial nucleus Fastigiobulbar projections: bilateral Inferior cerebellar peduncle Superior cerebellar Restiform body peduncle Juxtarestiform body Fourth ventricle Vestibular nuclei Medial longitudinal fasciculus Vestibular Level: receptors pontomedullary junction Nerve Ganglion Vestibular Medial vestibulospinal tracts Figure 9-15 Schematic diagram of focculonodular lobe circuitry. Activation of olivocerebellar climbing Reeling of trunk from side to side fbers evokes what type of response in Purkinje cells?
The diagnosis should be con- precancerous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 3 frmed by biopsy (Figure 12 buy discount famvir. The clinical diagnoses of vulvar multiplication cheap famvir 250 mg overnight delivery, with resulting tissue infammation dystrophy best famvir 250mg, condyloma acuminatum, and precan- and patient symptomatology. One tion must be done in women with chronic vulvar patient complaining of perineal pain 1–3 days after changes, before any new long duration of therapy intercourse had a painful cluster of lesions, which is contemplated. This was her frst recognized followed by a thorough visual perusal and the use clinical outbreak, and it had been preceded by an of microscopic studies of vaginal secretions and asymptomatic primary infection. These fragile vascular structures are sometimes the source of an increased vaginal discharge. Women with a history of breast cancer who are tak- ing tamoxifen citrate have immature squamous cells present, with an increased number of white cells (Figure 12. Laboratory testing should be individualized to ft the diagnostic needs of each patient. During the suggested 3-year inter- vals between cytologic studies, precancerous cervi- cal changes can occur that will require colposcopy, biopsy, or conization procedures for these patients. Patients present with persis- tent vulvar burning and itching with an increase in their symptomatology every time they urinate. In women not taking estrogen systemically or These women are excellent candidates for local locally, the pH is usually alkaline. Then, the micro- estrogen therapy after a Candida infection is ruled scopic examination is performed. An estradiol cream ration often shows immature squamous cells and can be prescribed that patients apply to the infamed many white cells (Figure 12. Local adrenocor- cal examination, a variety of antiviral agents can ticoid creams or ointments are indicated if there is be immediately prescribed while waiting for the lab widespread infammation or lichen sclerosus is pres- report. The V-600 imaging system that enables the in the perineal area, which on biopsy are shown to observer to view tissue two cell layers under the sur- be condyloma acuminata (Figure 12. A variety face is a great aid in determining the extent of vulvar of ablative techniques or the use of locally applied infammation before and during steroid therapy. If a local yeast infection is confrmed, a In addition to the readiness to culture any infam- local nystatin cream can be ordered. If this causes matory lesions, the physicians must be prepared to a local contact dermatitis, oral fuconazole therapy biopsy any new suspicious growths on the vulva. After this treatment, local steroids can be a variety of treatment options are available to the prescribed. The usual course is close Postmenopausal women with infections of the observation over time with repeated biopsies to be vulva should be managed with specifc care directed sure there has been no progression of the lesions toward the pathogen identifed by laboratory stud- in this area. If any of these women complain of the sudden of the vulva is confrmed by biopsy (Figures 12. These gynecologic oncologist so that vulvar resection and may be clinically obvious lesions (Figure 12. These ing of a vaginal discharge or vaginal burning requires cases demonstrate the importance of obtaining a an accurate diagnosis for there can be a variety of Vulvovaginal Infections 134 etiologies for these symptoms. Symptoms due to the A large group of postmenopausal patients com- presence of an endometrial polyp (Figure 12. On examination, they have other, uncommon, benign causes of an increase in an alkaline vaginal pH, a negative whiff test, and on vaginal symptoms in these women. Rarely, a foreign microscopic examination, immature squamous cells, body is found, and when it is removed, the patient an increased number of white cells, and a diminu- becomes asymptomatic. If the cultures grow no Candida Vaginal infections in these menopausal women and no bacterial pathogens, a local form of estrogen should be based upon laboratory fndings. If the iso- this estrogen therapy improved the bacterial fora of late is Candida krusei or Candida glabrata, local these women, it was not as effective as a daily dose or oral azoles are not indicated, and a regimen with of oral nitrofurantoin in preventing urinary tract local boric acid is begun for a 2-week treatment infections in this population. The microscopic examination intravaginal estradiol cream given daily for 2 weeks of the saline preparation shows immature squa- is usually effective. If the patient has had a reaction mous cells and an infammatory response with an to the cream in the past or has a reaction with cur- increased number of white cells (Figure 12. Local estrogen, which should reverse this pro- who cannot or will not take estrogen, vaginal acid cess, is usually not indicated. The periodic use of gels can be employed, supplemented with the vaginal an acidic vaginal gel helps some patients, but relief use of vaginal boric acid once or twice a week. This always comes when the tamoxifen citrate therapy is maintains the normal acid state of the vagina for a terminated. The introduction of new, more effective time and does result in a diminution of the vaginal agents, such as exemestane, should reduce the over- symptoms in many of these women. If either is positive, then biopsy to determine whether there are more severe appropriate antibiotic therapy should be prescribed. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initia- nants of the increased prevalence of high- tive Investigators. Incidence vaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with and clearance of genital human papillomavi- recurrent urinary tract infection. Exploratory comparison on vaginal glycogen Antibody response to infuenza vaccination and lactobacillus levels in premenopausal and in the elderly: A quantitative review. Vaginal microfora in post- in proinfammatory cytokine activity after menopausal women who have not received menopause. Investigation among postmenopausal women in the of the sensitivity of a cross-polarized light United States. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci visualization system to detect subclinical 2014;69(Suppl 2):S205–S214. The years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal relationship of bacterial vaginosis, Candida women with primary breast cancer. Chronic saries and nitrofurantoin microcrystal therapy vulvovaginitis in women older than 50 years: in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract Analysis of a prospective database. Her minute-to-minute awareness is that her vul- This heightened awareness by physicians was fol- var pain, whether constant or only with contact, is lowed by attempts of clinical investigators to divide so severe that intercourse becomes a trial of pain; and categorize the different clinical presentations even the insertion of a tampon is avoided because of this syndrome, i. The practitioners, these women are an unwanted intru- pain was described as provoked vulvodynia, where sion, smack-dab in the middle of an overcrowded the patient remains free of pain until vaginal entry offce schedule. These sufferers do not ft nicely is attempted, and unprovoked vulvodynia, in which into any of the recognizable categories of pathol- vulvar pain is constant. The pain has been further ogy for which doctors have a straightforward plan subdivided as localized, limited to a discrete por- of care. These women remain a cipher for the busy tion of the vulva, the vestibular glands, or the cli- physician and are dismissed from any future con- toris, or generalized, affecting the whole anatomic sideration with such hurtful postexamination com- vulvar site. It’s all in your which permits evaluation of the tissue at a depth of head” or “Just drink a glass of wine and relax. It was to be a veri- vulvar surgery or local tissue ablation offered to the table ode to the idea of evidence-based medicine, patient as an instant cure. Despite this grim picture, however, some hope There is concern, however, that with the variable for these women is emerging. Friedrich proffered the frst clinical def- to a specifc stimulus, a fnal endpoint reaction that nition of this syndrome in 1987, calling it “vul- will not improve our understanding of the under- var vestibulitis. For example, if the included vulvar erythema of varying degree, pain trigger for this pain syndrome is a mucosal contact on contact of the vestibular glands, and pain with dermatitis to the nonoxynol-9 present on the con- any vaginal entry pressure on the vestibular glands.
Distribution Caudal pons of left abducens nerve Lateral rectus muscle Esotropia Left eye C order 250 mg famvir visa. Chapter 5 Lower Motor Neurons: Flaccid Paralysis 57 pontomedullary junction cheap famvir 250 mg online, near the pyramid famvir 250 mg visa. The fbers then course ven- Connection trolaterally, passing lateral to the facial nucleus before emerging in the lateral part of the ponto- Lesions of the abducens nucleus medullary junction in the cerebellar angle. The or nerve result in medial devia- facial nucleus innervates the muscles of facial tion or esotropia and paralysis of abduction of expression and several other muscles, including the ipsilateral eye. This beginning of this chapter, motor nucleus is divided into two parts: a small lesions of the facial nucleus or nerve result in part that innervates the upper facial muscles and paralysis of the ipsilateral facial muscles, both a larger part that supplies the lower facial muscles. The most common lesion The facial root fbers, on emerging from the of the facial nerve occurs in Bell palsy, which nucleus, stream dorsomedially as individual produces weakness of both upper and lower fbers or in small groups (unobservable in myelin- facial muscles and inability to close the eye stained sections) to the foor of the fourth ven- tightly. In addition, lacrimation, salivation, and tricle where they form the ascending root of the A. Distribution of left facial nerve to Caudal pons facial muscles No closure of eye Temporal Zygomatic Branches of Buccal facial nerve C. An infammatory reaction of the nerve nucleus, which gives axons to the as it courses in the facial canal is the presumed glossopharyngeal nerve, results in dysphagia cause of Bell palsy. The accompanying abnor- owing to paralysis of the stylopharyngeus mus- malities depend on the location of the infam- cle. Fortunately, most which supplies axons to the vagus nerve, Bell palsy patients recover completely within a results in paralysis of the vocal muscles (caus- month or two. Paralysis of the palatal muscles results in sagging of the ipsi- lateral palatal arch and deviation of the uvula to Nucleus Ambiguus and Motor Roots the contralateral side. The nucleus This elongated motor nucleus is located in the ambiguus supplies the skeletal muscles of the foor of the medullary part of the fourth ventricle palate, pharynx, larynx, and upper esopha- near the midline (Fig. The rootlets pass gus; hence, it is involved in deglutition and ventrally through the medulla and emerge at the phonation. Distribution of axons from left ambiguus nucleus Vagus Ambiguus nucleus nerve Glossopharyngeal n. The hypoglossal nerve sup- lateral column supply the more distal muscles of plies the ipsilateral muscles of the tongue. Clinical Clinical Connection Connection Lesions of the hypoglossal nucleus or nerve result in a paralysis and Three groups of motor neurons, atrophy of the ipsilateral muscles of the tongue. The spinal accessory nucleus is located in and transverse muscles on the other side. It gives rise to the accessory nerve, which innervates the ster- nomastoid and trapezius muscles. Lesions of this for the most part, extends through the length of nucleus, or of the phrenic nerve result in paralysis the cord; it supplies the paravertebral or paraxial of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm or, if bilateral, in musculature. Onuf nucleus makes up a dis- tally; it is relatively small in the thoracic segments tinct group of alpha motor neurons in sacral seg- because its neurons here innervate only the inter- ments 2, 3, and 4. In contrast, the lat- external urethral and anal sphincters and, hence, eral column is extremely large in the cervical and play a major role in continence mechanisms. The muscles Deltoid C5,a C6 innervated by a single spinal cord segment form Biceps C5, C6a a myotome. The segmental innervation of some important groups of muscles is given in Table 5-1. Chapter 5 Lower Motor Neurons: Flaccid Paralysis 61 efferent limbs of all skeletal muscle refexes). Finally, pronounced decrease in bulk bolic enzymes are predominantly glycolytic or (atrophy) occurs in the denervated muscles after anaerobic. In the former, cell bodies or intramedullary muscle fber types, but one type may predominate. Type I muscles use predominately oxidative or Background levels of fring in motor neurons are aerobic metabolic enzymatic pathways to sup- responsible for normal muscle tone. Type I muscles are tractions above these levels are caused by activa- composed of relatively smaller muscle cells, each tion of the motor neurons by peripheral afferents, containing fewer contractile elements, therefore interneurons, and descending pathways. Neuronal activation to an excitatory synaptic Clinical input is dependent on its electrical resistance, Connection which is inversely related to its size or surface area. As the demand for potential propagation and altered neurotransmis- muscle contraction increases, there is an increased sion at the neuromuscular junction are described fring frequency in the motor neurons and a pro- in Chapter 1. Weakness and muscle atrophy gressive increase in recruitment of larger motor without paresthesia are indicative of a selective neurons. Muscle atrophy (loss triceps muscles to respectively fex and extend of trophic support) follows axonal degeneration. Conversely, ball joints Myopathies are more commonly observed in the (shoulder and hip), because they allow for a much inherited muscular dystrophies and less commonly greater range of motion, require the interactions in acquired dermatomyositis or polymyositis. Complex movements involving synchronous or sequential movements over multiple joints require the great- est amount of neural control. The lack of coordination of neural fr- Myotatic Refex ing in agonist and antagonist muscles can be seen in disorders involving the cerebellum (Chapter 9). Disorders of the motor unit can be caused by The afferent limb of the refex consists of Ia affer- skeletal muscle disorders (myopathic) or motor ent fbers and their annulospiral stretch recep- neuron or axon dysfunction (neuropathic). An neuropathic and myopathic diseases result in Ia afferent fber is the peripheral branch of the muscle weakness. Generally, distal limb weakness axon of a unipolar neuron in a dorsal root or spi- is suggestive of a neuropathic disorder, whereas nal ganglion. The central branch of the unipolar proximal limb weakness is suggestive of a myo- neuron’s axon has excitatory synapses on lower pathic disorder. The Ia fbers from inhibitory interneurons on which the Ib afferent the stretch muscle will also excite interneurons fbers synapse (Fig. This stretch refex–mediated inhibition refex, protects the tendon from an excitation of some motor neurons and inhibition injury that would result from too much tension. It also plays an important role in mechanisms Reciprocal innervation is important for voluntary related to fatigue and hyperextension or hyper- movements in which the antagonists to the mus- fexion of a joint. The more commonly tested myotatic refexes and their central and peripheral In addition to the populations of large lower or components are given in Table 5-2. The axons of the gamma motor Inverse Myotatic Refex neurons, which are about one-third of the total The contraction of voluntary muscle is infuenced ventral root fbers, supply the intrafusal muscle by tendon receptors that respond to increases in fbers at the poles of muscle spindles. Such receptors are the Golgi tendon tracting, the intrafusal muscle fbers stretch the organs, which are the endings of nerve fbers central parts of the muscle spindles, where the belonging to the Ib afferent system. By ent fbers decrease the contraction of their own regulating the stretch or tautness in the central muscles by inactivation or inhibition of the alpha receptor part of the muscle spindle, the gamma motor neurons that supply these muscles. The speed, amplitude, and dura- to stimulate the annulospiral stretch receptors, tion of these refexes are directly correlated with thereby eliciting myotatic refexes. Breathing needs to be under voluntary control for activities such as speech and singing. Descending motor pathways neuron determines the simplicity or complexity integrate the myriad of spinal refexes that coor- of refexes and their modifability. Excitation of gamma motor neuron → contraction of intrafusal muscle fbers at poles of muscle spindle → stretch of annulospiral receptor.
Although available for adults buy famvir 250mg with mastercard, this modality invaluable in achieving superior surgical outcomes for com- is not yet applicable for pediatric patients discount famvir 250 mg without a prescription. Understanding signifcant dif- porarily until the native cardiac function recovers from ferences between the two is buy discount famvir 250 mg online, however, essential in supporting the acute pathology, for example with acute myocardi- patients safely and effectively. The native organ dysfunction is permanent and the patient is supported until heart compliance to the venous side, but all volume adjustments transplant. It is unclear if the native car- side, and caution should be taken in the management of all diac dysfunction is reversible, or if the patient may ports and stopcocks in the circuit irrespective of their location. Numbers have reached a plateau due to donor limitations, leading to increased need for mechanical circulatory support. Management of systemic to pulmonary artery transplantation, with survival to successful transplantation in shunts has to be individualized based on the indication for about 50% of patients. Continuous monitoring of the premembrane complicated by anticoagulation and extracorporeal life sup- (oxygenator) pressure, transmembrane pressure, pump fow, port and lead to signifcant complications. With the chamber by a multilayer fexible polyurethane membrane, same standard pump, the circuit can be customized to patients which moves with alternating air pressure, thus flling and of various sizes by varying the tubing and cannula sizes. Trileafet polyurethane valves are located at the inlet and outlet positions of the blood pump long-term mcs connector stubs, to ensure unidirectional blood fow. The device has been 2 used routinely in Europe since the 1990s,48and in the United (>1. With the sternum but is not favored due to its limitations and concerns of open, it is helpful to create the tunnel for the cannulas prior to device-related thromboembolism46,47 and chest wall erosion heparin administration, care being taken to avoid peritoneal 47 violation. Pediatric Extracorporeal Life Support: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Mechanical Circulatory Support 107 are planned. Attention to decompression of the left heart by venting is essential to avoid distention of the left heart, which may secondarily affect right heart function. Complete mobi- lization of the heart is necessary to allow elevation of the left heart apex for infow cannula implantation. Multiple horizontal mattress sutures of Tevdek reinforced with pledgets, passed transmurally through the apical defect, secure the infow cannula (Fig. Additional reinforcement with a strip of pericardium may be necessary to achieve secure hemostasis. The cannula- thy patients the ideal site is anterior and lateral to the apical dimple. The infow cannula is placed with the bevel facing the interventricular septum (black arrowhead). In a larger child, this can Covering the apex with a donut of autologous pericardium or Gore- be accomplished with partial clamping of the aorta, although Tex pericardial substitute prevents apical adhesions and aids in it may be technically simpler with full aortic cross-clamping future explantation of the device/ transplantation. Competence of the semilunar of the pulmonary artery cannula, which like the aortic can- valves is another important requirement for obvious reasons nula is passed through the body wall prior to implantation. In patients with pulmonary valve incompetence, careful de-airing of the system aided by gentle ventilation. De-airing may of the entire system, after which the clamp is released and be aided by gentle flling of the heart by reducing cardiopul- the patient is transitioned from cardiopulmonary bypass to monary bypass fows. Selection of the appropriate site for can- nulation on the ascending aorta should be made prior to institution of cardiopulmonary bypass. Placement of the cannula on the right anterolateral aspect of the mid to distal ascending aorta avoids compression of the right ventricle or the right coronary artery along the cannula course. Partial clamping of the ascending aorta allows perfusion of the heart during this step and avoids ischemic insult to the right ventricle during isolated left ventricular assist device implantation; however, complete cross-clamping may be needed in neonates with smaller ascending aorta, or if additional intracardiac procedures are needed. The outfow cannula of the right ventricular assist device is implanted on the distal main pulmonary artery (X) using techniques similar to aortic cannulation for the left assist device outfow. With an overall survival of 70%, 0 12 24 36 48 60 72 best outcomes were noted in patients with cardiomyopathy Time (month) (85%), followed by patients with congenital heart disease (65%) and myocarditis (67%). Monitoring for neurologic injuries can be events or morbidity as defned by the Interagency challenging as they may occur without warning. Major should trigger an aggressive evaluation for potential neuro- bleeding, infectious complications, hepatic and renal failure, logic injury. Children aged 0 to 16 years with severe heart failure (Interagency Registry for ineligible for the primary cohort still had access to the device Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profle 1 or in a third compassionate-use cohort where adverse event 2) with biventricular anatomy and actively listed for heart data were collected for additional safety characterization of the device (Table 6. The Berlin survival to transplant, recovery, or uncomplicated device Heart Excor had a lower serious adverse event rate (<0. The assist devices in children across the United States: analysis devices currently in their preclinical phase are of 7. Use of rapid- • Single-ventricle patients continue to pose a signif- deployment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the cant challenge. Development of an impeller pump on 84 resuscitation of pediatric patients with heart disease after car- the Von Karman principle offers hope for mechan- diac arrest. Extracorporeal children of all ages with a minimum of associated membrane oxygenation for bridge to heart transplanta- complications. Outcomes of and mortality of heart failure-related hospitalizations in chil- pediatric patients bridged to heart transplantation from dren in the United States: a population-based study. Preoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use to aid pedi- a bridge to cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart atric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Optimizing patient resuscitation outcomes children requiring repeat extracorporeal membrane oxy- with simulation. Outcomes of second- citation performance during simulated cardiac arrest in run extracorporeal life support in children: a single–institution nursing student teams. J Thorac Cardiovasc technique to prevent limb ischemia during veno-arterial Surg 2008;136:976–83. Pediatr Crit Care Med after common femoral artery cannulation for venoarterial 2012;14:428–34. Survival outcomes assist device support with a centrifugal pump for 2 months in after rescue extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation a 5-kg child. Post-cardiotomy (accessed September 2012) extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in neonates 41. Outcomes of chil- after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants dren bridged to heart transplantation with ventricular assist and children with heart disease. J Heart Lung Transplant corporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for refractory 2000;19:121–6. Pediatric Extracorporeal Life Support: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Mechanical Circulatory Support 119 44. Ann dren of all sizes to cardiac transplantation: the initial mul- Thorac Surg 2011;91:1256–60. J Heart Lung Transplant experience with the MicroMed DeBakey pediatric ventricu- 2011;30:1–8. High level lar and biventricular support with the Thoratec ventricular of cerebral microembolization in patients supported with the assist device as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. Improvement in survival support results in improved outcomes compared with delayed after mechanical circulatory support with pneumatic pulsatile conversion of a left ventricular assist device to a biventricular ventricular assist devices in pediatric patients. Berlin Heart as a Safety of long-term mechanical support with Berlin Heart bridge to recovery for a failing Fontan. Outcomes of ventricular transplant with the Berlin Heart after cavopulmonary shunt.