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The last one is observed using a digital flter to enhance the details and reduce the noise trusted sporanox 100mg. He is frequently cited as one of the most im- portant contributors to the birth of commercial electric- ity and is known for his many revolutionary develop- ments in the feld of electromagnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries purchase line sporanox. We can mention that he de- signed the frst hydroelectric power plant in Niagara Falls in 1895 buy 100mg sporanox overnight delivery. Electrons were emitted and Nikola Tesla accelerated by the electrical feld in his Tesla coil. Tesla managed to obtain images of the human body with this radiation the shadowgraphs. He also sent some of his images to Roentgen shortly after Roentgen published his discov- ery. Tesla gave Roentgen full credit for the fnding and never attempted to proclaim priority. In the magazine Electrical Review for 1896 some X-ray observations by Tesla were pub- lished. He described some clinical benefts of x-rays for example; determination of for- eign body position and detection of lung diseases. Furthermore, during the next 50 years x-ray pictures and fuoroscopy played an important role in the treatment of tuberculosis. In the period before streptomycin (1947) the only treatment was pneumothorax an attempt to let the lung rest by accumulation of air in the pleural cavity and the lung more or less collapsed. We can note that no dosimetry was carried out at the time and the doses now quoted are very much speculations (see page 210). The idea was to introduce elements that could absorb ef- fciently the x-rays and thus enhance the contrast. The main absorption mechanism is the photoelectric effect which varies consider- ably with the atomic number (approximately as Z4). In a complex mixture of elements like that found in the organs of a patient, the degree of attenuation varies with the average of the atomic number of all the atoms involved. If two organs have similar densities and similar average atomic numbers, it is not possible to distinguish them on a radiograph, because no natural contrast exists. For example, it is not possible to identify blood vessels within an organ, or to demonstrate the internal structure of the kidney, without artifcially altering the electron density and absorption. In the period from 1931 until it was stopped2 2 10 million patients worldwide have been treated with Thorotrast. In 1910 barium sulfate was introduced as contrast agent for gastrointestinal diagnosis. In 1924 the frst imaging of the gallbladder, bile duct and blood vessels took place. This tube was superior to other tubes at the time because of; 1) its high vacuum and 2) a heated flament as the source for electrons. He was able to show that a narrow catheter could be advanced from a vein in the arm into the right atrium of the heart, a distance of almost two-thirds of a meter. Obviously, this constituted a remarkable advance and could be visual- ized by contrast compounds. This opened the way for angiography which al- lowed the routine imaging of blood vessels and the heart. In connection to this break-through in medical im- aging we have to mention the forerunner of the tech- nique called planigraphy. In 1948 Marius Kolsrud at the University of Oslo pre- sented a master thesis with the title; Godfrey Hounsfeld Allan Cormack Rntgen-skikt-avbildning. Kolsrud made equipment that made it possible to take x-ray pictures of a single plane in the object. Consequently, structures in the focal plane appear sharper, while structures in other planes appear blurred. It is thus possible to select different focal planes which contain the structures of interest. This method was used for chest x-ray pictures in connection with tuberculo- sis for a number of years. This technique uses x-ray fuo- roscopy to guide the compression of plaques and minimize the dangerous constriction of the heart vessels. The signal from the x-ray system is con- verted to a digital picture which can then be enhanced for clearer diagnosis Andreas Gruentzig and stored digitally for future review. The physical basis for an x-ray picture The x-ray picture is a shadow picture of the part of the body that is between the x-ray tube and the flm. Only the x-ray photons that penetrate the object and reach the flm can give a signal or blacken- ing of the flm. To see into the body we must have something that can penetrate the body come out again and give information. The fgure below is an attempt to illustrate the main points for making an x-ray photo. The two drawings one vertical and one hor- Incoming x-ray photons izontal are attempts to illustrate the basic principles for an x-ray photo. Absorber Part of the body Transmitted Electron photons The x-rays is absorbed according to the electron density Incoming photons Detector Scattered flm, fuoeresent screen, etc. The x-ray source On page 8 we described the basic principles for the formation of x-rays or rather bremstrahlung. When electrons with high energy smash into the anticathode a tiny part of the energy is trans- formed into radiation. This implies that the x-ray photons formed, may have a number of different energies in fact a whole spectrum is formed (the Initial spectrum in the fgure below). X-rays are usually described by their maximum energy, which is determined by the voltage between the electrodes. The amount or frac- tion of the electron energy that is transformed into x-rays from the anode surface is only about a percent of the electron energy. This implies that most of the energy is dissipated as heat, and consequently the anode must be cooled. The probability for transferring the elec- tron energy into radiation is proportional to Z E. The result is a spec- trum in the fgure called initial spectrum In order to use the radiation it must get out of the X-ray tube. The spectrum changes like that illustrated above from the initial spectrum into the fnal spectrum. For example, if low energy x-rays are needed, a beryllium window is used since this window has much lower density than a glass window. The spectrum also contains characteristic x-rays from dislodging of K- and L-shell electrons from the target.
Over time generic sporanox 100 mg on line, however 100mg sporanox sale, symptoms may become more severe with less complete recovery of function after each attack cheapest generic sporanox uk, possibly because of gliosis and axonal loss in repeatedly affected plaques. There is an accumulation of decits and disability which may level off at some point or continue over years. Given that follow-up studies show that most patients of this type will eventually enter a disabling secondary progressive phase, the term benign is somewhat misleading. It has also been shown that multisite presentations and poor recovery from an initial episode may indicate a worse outcome. Studies that have observed a difference by sex usually indicate that males experience a more severe course than females. Some features of the disease are generally accepted and are discussed further in this section. Most early research focused on the possible role of an environmental factor that varied with latitude. To date no such risk factor for the disease has been unequivocally identied, though researchers continue to believe that one exists. There is substantial evidence of a genetic predisposition to the disease based on familial aggregation, and some debate over whether genet- ics or exposure to an environmental trigger primarily accounts for its geographical distribution. First, an environmental risk factor may be more common in temperate than tropical climates. Second, such a factor may be more common in tropical climates, where it is acquired at an earlier age and consequently has less impact. Third, this factor may be equally common in all regions, but the chance of its acquisition or of the manifestation of symptoms is either increased by some enhancing factor present in temperate climates or reduced by a protective factor present in tropical areas. Among those factors that have been most closely scrutinized are: infections, including a number of viral infections such as measles and Epstein Barr virus; climate and solar conditions; living conditions; diet and trace elements. This is underlined by the fact that no population-based study of monozygotic twins has found a concordance rate in excess of 30%. While there is some truth to this, it belies the complex interaction of geography, genes and environment that larger scale epidemiological studies have uncovered. Because the environmental and genetic determinants of geographic gradients are by no means mutually exclusive, the race versus place controversy is, to some extent, a useless and sterile debate (4). Studies both between and within countries invariably show that immigrants mov- ing from high-risk to low-risk areas have a higher rate than that in their new homeland, but often somewhat lower than that in their place of origin. However, data for the United States are based primarily on incidence and document the same decline in risk as found in prevalence studies. This may be because they carry some protective factor with them, but these studies frequently involve non-white immigrants in whom the disease is known to be rare and who may be genetically resistant. For example, the disease is virtually non-existent among Australian Aborigines, New Zealand Maoris and Black people in South Africa. In the United States, incidence and prevalence rates are twice as high among whites as among African Americans regardless of latitude. Further evidence of the role that environmental factors play comes from the studies of children of migrants. For example, the prevalence rates among the British-born children of immigrants from India, Pakistan, and parts of Africa and the West Indies were very much higher than those recorded for their parents and approximately equal to the expected rate for England. Together with their family members, they may also bear a nancial burden related to home and transport modications and the need for additional personal services. The ability to continue in gainful employment or to maintain social contacts and leisure activities correlates with the course and severity of the disease and cognitive function. Most carers reported symptoms that clearly related to organic pathologies, anxiety and symptoms of depression. The professional careers of 57% of relatives were also adversely affected by the patient s illness. Lost productive capacity and the replacement value of informal community care are the two largest cost components (8). A number of disease- modifying drugs have been developed in the past 20 years, however, which reduce the number of attacks in the relapsing/remitting form of the disease. The extent to which eventual disease burden and disability are limited by use of the drugs is less clear. Although these drugs have been introduced in the developing regions, their high cost means many patients are unable to have access to them. To date, no medical treatments for the progressive forms of the disease exist, and results from studies focusing on neuroprotection and repair are eagerly awaited. Corticosteroids are the medications of choice for treating exacerbations and can be admin- istered in the hospital or community setting (the latter is usually preferred) (10). European guidelines have been developed for both the use of the established dis- ease-modifying drugs and the treatment of symptoms (11, 12 ). For patients with relatively moderate disability, exercise (both aerobic and non-aerobic) has been found to be useful, as has physiotherapy. There have been few, if any, studies evaluating the rehabilitation needs of those with more severe disability. Neurorehabilitation aims to improve independence and quality of life by maximizing ability and participation. The essential components of successful neurorehabilitation include expert multidisciplinary assessment, goal-oriented programmes and evaluation of impact on patient and goal achievement through the use of clinically appropriate, scientically sound outcome measures incorporating the patient s perspective (14). While these principles are intuitively sound, the evidence underpinning multidisciplinary as- sessment and goal-orientated programmes is weak. Fundamental to the provision of robust neurological disorders: a public health approach 91 evidence of the benets of rehabilitation interventions is the use of scientically sound outcome measures. The need for a multi- disciplinary and multimodal approach to symptom management is described in a recent review (15) and is exemplied in the case of spasticity (16). Ideally, most services should be community-based with supporting expertise from the acute hospital or rehabilitation centre at times of particular need (such as at diagnosis or during a severe relapse) or complexity (when multiple symptoms interact and intensive inpatient rehabilitation is required). The optimum method of service delivery has not yet been dened, and little comparison has been made of existing services. A recently published study (17 ) compared two forms of service delivery in a randomized con- trolled trial. One group received what was described as hospital home care, in which patients remained in the community but had immediate access to the hospital-based multidisciplinary team when required, while the other group received routine care. No difference was seen in the level of disability between the two groups after 12 months, but the hospital home care patients, who were more intensely treated, had signicantly less depression and improved quality of life. There continue to be major problems worldwide in delivering a model of care that provides truly coordinated services. There is serious inequity of service provision both within and across countries, and an inordinate and unacceptable reliance on family and friends to provide essential care. The key challenge will be ensuring the translation of these guidelines into practice. In part this reects the differences in incidence and therefore the relative importance afforded to the disease within a country s health system.
This process The following week order 100mg sporanox, overtired but determined buy 100 mg sporanox with mastercard, the resident allowed her to refect on her responses and to consider her fnally breaks through generic sporanox 100mg. The resident ends up asking the personal reasons for feeling so overwhelmed at the time. She also began to speak with Introduction a more experienced colleague about how she was handling Medical practice has always been grounded in life s intersubjec- things. He spoke of his anger practitioners, we learn to identify and interpret our emotional and resentment of being afficted with a life-threatening responses to patients and in doing so are able to make sense illness so early in his productive years. He did not want of their life journeys and grant what is called for and called people s sympathy, nor did he want to be a burden to forth in facing ill and vulnerable patients (Charon 2006). The resident learns The textbox gives an example of how keeping a journal can the therapeutic value of talking with a patient about his assist in this emotional process. Summary Writing in a journal can help us to bridge professional and Key references personal gaps. A model for empathy, close reading allows physicians to do what medical sociolo- refection, profession, and trust. New England Journal it affecting one s own life and to fnd in that effect a certain of Medicine. By chronicling our experi- ences as physicians, we learn the value of telling and retelling, of gaining understanding, and of respecting and learning from the many authentic stories we share. Many people activity into one s lifestyle, and do not appreciate that the multiple health benefts of regular discuss the importance of modelling being physically ac- physical activity enhanced cardio-respiratory and musculo- tive to colleagues, students and the medical community. It is not necessary to become an athlete to enjoy breathless than before when climbing stairs. The benefts of cally active throughout their teens, as an undergraduate sustained, moderate-intensity aerobic activity are protean and medical student, the resident realizes that over the and go well beyond improving cardiovascular health. Regular four years of the postgraduate program they have become physical activity can be a time for recreation in the fullest increasingly sedentary. The so-called talk test (exercising at Evidence of the health benefts of physical activity is long- an intensity that permits simple conversation with an exercis- standing, incontrovertible and ever-increasing. Regular par- ing partner or friend) is a remarkably accurate indicator of a ticipation in physical activity greatly decreases the likelihood level of activity that optimizes cardio-respiratory function and of chronic disease and premature mortality. How does the busy practitioner despite this knowledge, physicians appear to be no more active protect suffcient time for physical exercise? And, sadly, although medical integrate physical activity into one s personal and professional students are typically active on a regular basis, it is too often the lifestyle? How do we normalize such activity within the profes- case that as they embark upon their careers they give less time sional community? Activities that are te- likelihood that regular physical activity will be part of a physi- dious, uncomfortable or intimidating are not likely to form the cian s lifestyle. At the same time, many medical practitioners basis of a lifetime of healthy physical activity. Find something bring to exercise the same achievement-oriented, goal-driven you enjoy and look forward to the release it offers from the approach that is in part responsible for their success as stu- pressures of a busy professional life. However, while an athletic model of physical activity may be motivating and rewarding for some, it Feasible. It is reassuring to know that the health ized facilities or signifcant travel are diffcult to integrate into benefts of physical activity accrue with as little as thirty min- daily life. A lunchtime walk, an evening jog, or a regular swim utes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week. Biking to work and taking the stairs whenever pos- important, health-enhancing properties of an active lifestyle. Physical activity that frequently involves family and friends has a further motivation built in. Encouraging Case resolution the whole family to engage in regular physical activity can allow Deciding to make one s personal health a priority is an you to pass on your exercise values to your children, opti- important step in making time for physical activity. The resident no longer takes elevators unless of exercise intensity will help prevent injury and increase the absolutely necessary (there s a Stairway to Health pro- likelihood of enjoyable physical recreation over a lifetime. As benefts to physical health, physical activity allows private, chief resident, they also encourage younger colleagues to personal time for refection and recreation. Family vacations for physicians to integrate physical activity into their personal are now chosen with physical activities in mind: camping lifestyles in ways that are both practical and, most importantly, and canoeing in the summer. By demonstrating to friends and colleagues that physi- Key references cal activity is important to one s well-being, the resident Frank E, Breyan J, Elon L. Physician disclosure of ensures understanding and support as they optimize time healthy personal behaviors improves credibility and ability to for personal health. Physical inactiv- portive advice on the importance of personal health and ity among physicians. The resident s bicycle helmet serves as a reminder to colleagues, hospital and attending staff that personal health and physical activity are important, central components of a contemporary practitioner s lifestyle. The resident s example and leadership result in the hospital providing bike racks and shower facilities for staff. And it is a introduce a model of considering the role of spirituality in practice that requires ongoing self-refection and attention. We tend to forget to care Case for ourselves when we are single-mindedly committed to the A frst-year resident is feeling disillusioned with medicine. Compassion that does not include The resident entered medicine because their father died oneself is incomplete. Now feeling frustrated by the inevitable deaths of too many of Burnout is distressingly common in medicine, as in other their patients the resident is thinking of taking a year off occupations where time is spent supporting others. The what might be regarded as a spiritual illness: if engagement wisdom and compassion that this engenders does not make us with one s life is a sign of spiritual health, burnout is the oppo- more expert; it makes us more human. Physicians who were once wholeheartedly committed to to do; spirituality, how to be. As physicians, we can beneft from medicine begin to avoid work, become less interested in their practising both. Courses on spirituality have begun to appear in medical school Not surprisingly, burnout can lead to depression, addiction and curricula. Whether or not spiritual the health of its members all contribute to the psychological matters belong in our medical curricula, surveys suggest that and emotional vulnerability of physicians. This vulnerability most medical practitioners do consider spiritual questions is intensifed in residency by the lack of a sense of personal and values personally relevant. Given that burnout is an principle central to all spiritual traditions, is embedded in the occupational risk for physicians, how can they lessen it? Interestingly, there is now some important way is to develop spiritual resilience.
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